Join Greg Sowell for an in-depth discussion in this video The role of protocols in networking, part of Networking Foundations: Protocols and CLI Tools.
- A communications protocol is a tele-communications system of rules to allow two or more entities to transfer information. These rules govern semantics, syntax, and synchronization of data. Protocols can utilize many types of software or hardware. These communications must take place over a common transmission system. We generally refer to this as the network. The framework that is most often used on the network is the TCP/IP and OSI models. They are both used as a road map for venders to share a common set of actions.
Modern systems use a layering technique. Different protocols are used at various levels to handle specific tasks. This cooperation is often referred to as a protocol family or protocol suite. Most notably, IPX/SPX, AppleTalk, and of course, TCP/IP. Each layer tackles a specific problem, then passes it on to the next. Issues like application, transport, and network. At these varying layers, there are a few fundamental services that need to be addressed.
Data formats are crucial. They break digital messages into bitstrings that are divided into fields that carry relevant information. Address formats for data exchange define the standards by which a sending and receiving host is identified. Sometimes, address mapping must be performed. This is where one layer's address scheme is translated to another layer. An example would be IP addressing to MAC addressing. At layer three, routing is crucial to passing traffic from one network to another. If traffic cannot be transmitted reliably, error detection can be implemented to manage the chaos.
Reception acknowledgements can also improve transmission reliability and are critical to some reliable transmission types. And finally, another important component is how the system should react to the loss of information.
Protocols are the lifeblood of modern communication. By the end of this course, you'll know what you need to troubleshoot any network connection and keep the communication flowing.
Note: This course maps to domain 3 of the MTA Networking Fundamentals exam.
- Identify reasons why connectionless transmissions are faster.
- Determine what type of attack a gratuitous ARP announcing itself as a legitimate host indicates.
- State what IGMP snooping is useful for.
- Describe the best approach to use FTP to view and rename files on a server when your client is behind a firewall.
- Assess whether SSH is natively supported on Windows or not.
- List good uses for the arp command.