Any time you’re setting more than one line of text, the appearance of that text will be affected by hyphenation and justification settings. Hyphenation settings tell QuarkXPress what to do when a word won't fit at the end of a line. Mike describes how to get the right H&J settings to make your text look and fit better. He looks at how to control character spacing and word spacing, with maximum, minimum, and optimal values. He explains features like flush zone and hyphenation zone.
- [Voiceover] Any time you're setting more than one line of text, the appearance of that text will be affected by hyphenation and justification settings. Hyphenation settings tell QuarkXPress what to do when a word won't fit at the end of a line and justification settings control the spaces between words and characters. Getting these settings right can really help you set the best looking text in your layouts so let's see how to work with hyphenation and justification settings. In our exercise file on the first page here, we have a text box with a few paragraphs of body text and the paragraphs use justified alignment.
If we zoom in a bit, we can see that there are a few hyphens on the right side of the textbox. The number of hyphens and the spacing between the words and letters is controlled by a setting you can see in the Measurements palette in the Paragraph tab called H and J which is short for hyphenation and justification. So let's put our cursor in the middle paragraph, go to the Paragraph tab and there's H and J. Windows users can access the H and J settings in the Paragraph attributes dialog box which can be opened when you have your cursor in a text box by pressing Control Shift F or by going to the Style menu and choosing Formats.
I can see that currently, the setting is something called Standard and in the menu, there are also choices like Narrow Measure, No Hyphenation, Titles, Very Narrow Measure and Wide Measure and if I choose another one like Very Narrow Measure, I get different line breaks in my paragraph. I can also choose No Hyphenation and interestingly, choosing No Hyphenation still allows a hyphenated word like hundred-weight to break. If I zoom out again and make the column very narrow, say just under an inch and a half, select my text and apply No Hyphenation, you can see that there are these really large gaps between some words like here and this line's really spaced out as well.
But if I select the text and choose a more appropriate setting like Very Narrow Measure, the text looks a lot better. So where do these settings come from and what exactly are they doing to my type? I can find them by choosing Edit, H&Js and in the dialog box, here are the same six default choices that were in the Measurements palette. As I click on each one, I can see a summary of its settings here and I can use one as a basis for a new H and J setting by selecting it and clicking Duplicate so let's duplicate the Very Narrow Measure H and J settings.
So here, hyphenation is allowed. Only words of five or more letters will be hyphenated with at least two letters before and after the hyphen. Capitalized words can be hyphenated. We're allowing an unlimited number of hyphens in a row. The hyphenation zone is a measure of how far in from the paragraph indent that words will either hyphenate or be forced down to the next line. Another way to think of it is that whenever the next to last word on a line enters the hyphenation zone, the last word on that line will either be hyphenated or forced down.
So for our left aligned paragraph, the larger hyphenation zones will result in more space on the right side of your paragraphs. To illustrate this, let's change the value for the hyphenation zone from zero to two inches and let's change the name of our custom setting here to Very Narrow Measure HZ for Hyphenation Zone. Click Okay and Save. Select our textbox and now let's close up the width of it even more so it's less than an inch wide.
Select all the text in the textbox and in the Paragraph tab, make the text left aligned and set to Very Narrow Measure. Now, let's switch it to Very Narrow Measure HZ, our custom setting. See the difference? Because the hyphenation zone is actually wider than the textbox now, we get much more empty space on the right side here and nothing is hyphenating but if I select this text again and turn it back to Very Narrow Measure.
With its hyphenation zone of zero, more text can fit on each line. This can be a tricky setting to get the hang of so I recommend if you really want to master it to experiment like we are here with different H and J settings where just the hyphenation zone is different. Vary the width of the textbox and the size of the type and see what a difference the hyphenation zone makes. Let's select the text and set it back to the standard H and Js and return the textbox to its original size which was three and three quarter inches and justified alignment.
Now, let's go back to the H and J dialog box and now we'll look at justification settings. Remember, these control how much space there is between words and characters. If we double click the Very Narrow Measure H and Js, we can see the justification method here on the right and for the space between words and characters, we can set a maximum value, a minimum value and an optimal value. Here, the optimal value is a regular width word space and it can vary from 85 percent of that width to a maximum of two hundred percent of that width so there's a lot of flexibility allowed for word spacing in the Very Narrow Measure H and Js.
When it comes to characters, the optimal setting here is zero which says, don't add or remove any spacing between characters. just use what's built in to the font. That's the ideal. But it is okay to squish that spacing up to negative six percent or increase it up to eight percent. So add those two together and you can see that we're allowing about 14 percent total variation in letter spacing or another way of saying it is the tightest lines in the paragraph will have 14 percent tighter spacing than the loosest lines.
Let's try to keep those values in mind as we click Cancel and then double click the Wide Measure to look at it. There's a big difference in the word spacing between this and the Very Narrow Measure. Here, the maximum word spacing is just 115 percent. Remember, it was two hundred percent in the Very Narrow spacing so not nearly as much flexibility is allowed here and the reason for that is with a long line of text, you have more spaces to work with so each one can vary just a little bit and still justify different lines of text to the same indent so you just don't need as much flexibility in the wide column and that's good because it means the spacing will be very consistent throughout the paragraph.
You won't have one line with huge spaces between the words and the next line will be really tight which is something you might have to accept in a very narrow column. Character spacing also has a lot less variance here for the same reason. Flush zone is how close the last word on the last line of a justified paragraph has to come to the right indent in order for it to be justified. Large values will give you more fully justified paragraphs with more space between the words on the last line and lastly, Single Word Justify determines whether a word sitting by itself on the last line of a justified paragraph is also justified or if just left aligns.
Okay so let's cancel out of here and go to the next page of our exercise file and we can zoom in on these textboxes. Put your cursor in the top paragraph and set it to use the Very Narrow Measure H and Js. Now, put your cursor in the bottom paragraph and set it to use the Wide Measure. Now, if you can pair the two paragraphs, you'll see that the one with the Wide Measure has more consistent and tighter spacing overall.
The difference isn't huge. They run the same number of lines and only one extra word appears on the last line but when you look closer, you start to see the difference. Check out the third line that starts out with Cheddar tipped the scales. See how loose it is here compared to down here? With the Wide Measure H and Js, QuarkXPress was able to squeeze in a little more text that tighten things up and change the rest of the line breaks. One more thing I should mention and that is that H and Js can be controlled by paragraph style sheets so if I right click on my body text style sheet and choose Edit and then click on Format, here's where you can pick the H and J setting.
It makes a small difference in one paragraph but over the course of many thousands of words and hundreds of paragraphs in a book, it can really add up and it can affect the overall quality of your typography. Getting the right H and J settings can make your text look and fit better throughout your layout.
Mike Rankin covers the interface and preferences, and the basics of working with documents, master pages, layers, and items (the design elements of a QuarkXPress layout). He then goes over how to import text, format it, and control alignment, leading, and spacing around paragraph and text boxes. There are chapters dedicated to tables, images, and interactivity, as well as the output and publishing options in QuarkXPress, including EPUB and HTML5. Focus on just the topics you need to complete your next layout, or watch the entire course to master the desktop publishing workflow.
- What is QuarkXPress?
- Setting preferences
- Creating new documents and pages
- Moving and merging layers in QuarkXPress
- Using the Bezier Pen tool
- Importing and editing text
- Applying fonts
- Working with bullets and numbering
- Using style sheets
- Creating anchored text boxes
- Formatting tables
- Controlling color and opacity
- Adding hyperlinks, video, and animation
- Exporting QuarkXPress files