Review common tools and scenarios, including ipconfig, ping, tracert, pathping, and nslookup.
- [Instructor] If you have teenage children, you'll certainly know that is the end of the world whenever they can't access the internet. This is very similar for enterprises. With no internet connectivity, there can be no browsing and no email. Most cloud connectivity issues are caused by incorrect configurations or failed network components. Thankfully there are established tools available to help you solve network connectivity issues. These are defined as any problem where users cannot access cloud resources such as the service portal or cloud apps.
If you're using Windows 10, there's a really useful Windows network diagnostics tool available. This will troubleshoot connection issues and analyze the problem, even suggesting a list of possible solutions or causes. You can access this tool via the network icon which is shown in the notification area. Let's take a quick look. Let's drop onto our demo PC and take a look at the Windows 10 network diagnostic troubleshooting tool. I'll right click the network icon in the notification area and select Troubleshoot problems.
The Windows Network Diagnostics tool appears and it finds that there's a problem with the ethernet adapter and it's been disabled. A recommended solution is to try to repair this as an administrator. I'll select this link and the tool now tries to resolve the problem. The ethernet adapter was disabled and this is now being fixed. Notice the View detailed information link in the bottom left hand corner. If we select this, it shows us a lot more information about the networking, the tools, and the issues that it finds.
We can close the network diagnostics tool. If the automated troubleshooter does not resolve the issue and it generally does, then you can use one of a selection of command line tools that can be used to identify and diagnose network and connection issues available in Windows. Let's take a look at some of the most common tools. The connectivity command line tools are part of the TCP IP tool set and have been part of Windows for over three decades. These include ipconfig, Ping, TRACERT, Pathping, and nslookup.
Ipconfig is used to show and configure the IP configuration. The ipconfig command will display TCP IP configuration values such as the value of the current IP address, the subnet mask, DNS, and the default gateway information. You can also use ipconfig to release and renew the DHCP settings, and clear out any stale DNS resolve cached records. The Ping command is sent out from the device and verifies at an IP level connectivity to another computer on the network.
The protocol used is the Internet Control Message Protocol or ICMP, and uses an Echo Request message. You can think of the Ping command as being like a sonar signal on a submarine. ICMP Echo Reply messages will be shown along with roundtrip times and you can use different parameters with the Ping command. For example, using it with IP version six automate the echo message continuous, use the minus T.
Where Ping is used on the network, let's review the two Ping responses. A Request Timed Out response shows a connection route is possible, but a device on the path between the source and the destination is not configured correctly. A Destination Host Unreachable response shows that there is no route to the destination. The Tracert command is used to trace the route the packet uses to get to the destination. And just like with the Ping command, it uses the ICMP protocol.
It will display a list of the routers that will use jour in the journey. If a packet cannot be delivered, it will show the last router that successfully forwarded the packet. Pathping is similar to Tracert in that it uses Tracert to calculate the path through the network to the destination. The ICMP Ping command is used to test the latency of each hop or router along the path. However, it provides more detailed statistics on each individual hop or router negotiated than Tracert alone and can be used to identify faulty routers that may slow the traffic.
Latency relates to the responsiveness of each connected router. And Nslookup is a tool that allows you to test the DNS name resolution. That is to see if your computer can find other computers using DNS. For example, if you used the parameter host name, then nslookup will perform a formal lookup of the computer host name and provide you with a valid IP address. Just a final word, you should be careful not to rely exclusively on the ICMP tools.
This is because public routers and firewalls tend to block ICMP packets and this helps reduce the likelihood of a denial of service attack.
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