Join George Maestri for an in-depth discussion in this video Basic UV mapping for polygonal objects, part of Maya 2016 Essential Training.
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- When we work with polygonal surfaces and want to apply maps, such as texture maps or bitmaps, we need to be very specific about where those bitmaps go on the polygonal surface. Now this process is called mapping, or UV Mapping, and Maya has a number of different tools that can help you apply your maps to your polygonal surfaces. Now we're gonna start off by taking a look at what are called projections, and these are ways to project images onto your surfaces.
We're going to work with this ground plane here, for this house, and before we get started we're actually gonna create three materials. One for the top, one for the sides and one for the bottom. So I'm gonna start off with the one for the bottom and that's just gonna be kind of a random, neutral color. We're really not gonna see this when we work with it. So I'm just gonna create a Lambert Material and apply it to the object as a whole, and then I'm gonna create kind of a brown color for this. So something like this. And now I want to apply something to the top.
I don't want this house sitting on dirt. I want it on a nice lawn, and so I've got this image here, and this is basically kind of a green texture with a road and some sidewalks, very stylized but it should work. So I want to apply that to the top of this surface. Well, my first problem is I need to create a material that is applied only to that portion of the object. So, the first thing I need to do is select some faces. So I'm gonna go into face mode here. I'm gonna right click over my object, and then I'm gonna go into an orthographic viewport and just select out the top of this.
And typically I'll get the first row of polygons below that. I can just hit shift+< and that will reduce my selection by one polygon, and now I have just the top of that surface selected. So I'm gonna apply a new Lambert Material, and we're gonna call that one Ground_Top. So now you can see how when I change the color of this material, it only changes that top of the surface. So I'm gonna go ahead and insert a render note here, so I'm gonna click on this button, and we're gonna insert a file.
So if you've set your project to Chapter 11, you should see a texture out there called Suburb_Texture in the sourceimages folder. And I'm gonna go ahead and open that up, and as you can see it applies, but it's not mapped properly so I'm getting all grass here. I'm not getting any of that street or the driveway. It's not mapping appropriately. Well we can change this mapping by using projections. So these are found under the modeling toolkit, even though they're used for rendering, they're actually a modeling function here, and they're all under UV.
So we have a number of things that we can do to create and edit UV's. And the ones that I'm gonna look at here are the projections, so we have a cylindrical, a planar, and a spherical projection. We also have automatic mapping, one called Best Plane Texturing Tool, so we have a number of ways to apply maps to objects. Now before I do this, I need to select what I'm going to map, which again, will be the top of this object.
So the easiest way for me to do that is to, again, just go into an orthographic viewport, select that top and then reduce it by one, by hitting the less than sign. So now I have all of these selected, and I can go UV, and then select whatever type of mapping I want. Well, this is very close to a plane, so I'm gonna select planar mapping. And when I do it brings up this icon here, and it applies a node in my attribute editor called polyPlanarProj.
So this gives me the ability to set a width and a height, so I'm gonna type in a number here. I'm gonna type in 100 for this. So you can see now that this is basically a plane, and on that plane is mapped my image. Now this is actually going in the wrong direction, but you can see that as I move that plane, I can change how that image is mapped. But I don't wanna map this at 90 degrees, I wanna map it at 0, and then I wanna rotate this, if we look here, along the X axis by 90 degrees.
Something like that. And then I can use these little handles to scale and move and rotate this image. Now the one thing I'm seeing with this is that the driveway's on the wrong side. I need to flip this over or mirror it. Now if I try and mirror it by going this way, it's not gonna work. Cause I can't scale negative, cause all this does is change my projection height. You can see it's this number here.
But if I want, I can change my image scale to -1 and that will flip it. So we have an image attribute here. So this is the actual projection attributes, how it's projecting, and this is how it's controlling that image. So if I want I can rotate that image, and I can scale it in either direction. So now I can position this exactly the way that I want and adjust it so that it fits my surface.
And once I do, all I have to do is click off of that, go back into object mode and now you can see I have this texture projected. Now if I want, I can go back to this. All I have to do is go into my attribute editor and you'll see that I've got a Poly Planar Project and I can go back to this and change it whenever I want. So this is just a node that you can see in the attribute editor or the hypergraph.
- Getting familiar with the Maya interface
- Selecting and manipulating objects
- Creating hierarchies and layers in scenes
- Creating polygonal objects
- Extruding a mesh
- Working with subdivision surfaces
- Sculpting a basic landscape
- NURBs modeling
- Creating and applying materials and textures
- Adding lights and cameras to a scene
- Adding depth of field and motion blur
- Animating in Maya