Join Sean Colins for an in-depth discussion in this video Understanding server administration, part of Mac OS X Server 10.5 Leopard Essential Training.
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In the Server Preferences movie, I promised we'd take a look at the Server Admin application, and we're going to do that right now. We're going to double-click on Server Admin. If you're not here already, it's located inside of your Applications folder, in a folder called Server. Double-click on it and as soon as it opens you're going get asked, "What do you want to connect to? Where is the server that you're trying to administer?" So we're going to connect to a couple of different servers just to show off the program, and show you a little bit about how to set it up, how to get it connected to servers, and just a couple of things about some of the information that it can show you, understanding that we're going to use this program alot.
So I'm just going to get you oriented to the Server Admin application, get you sort of understanding how it functions and then down the road whenever we attach each of these services to the server, you'll get a little bit better understanding about how each of those works. So here we are, we're going to put in the address of our server, and we're going to do two different servers with this. First one I'm going to do is Workgroup.leopardserveresst.com and I'll put in the username that I've got on that, and the password.
I'm not going to remember that in the keychain so it's going to disable Automatic Login, and we're going to hit Connect. Now when we connect, you get this big scary message, and it's a big scary message for a reason. You're connecting to a server that is not supposed to use this tool to configure it. The whole point of a standard or Workgroup server is ease of configuration, ease of use. If you really want to use Server Admin to administer your server and you haven't made up your mind yet about which version you want to use, you really ought to choose the Advanced Server, and I say this because it's what was intended. I mean there are certain applications that are intended to be used with certain services. Just because you can use Server Admin to administer a non- Advanced Server doesn't mean you necessarily should.
Anyway we're going to not open up the Server Preferences and we're definitely not going to convert the server to an Advanced Server. If you're going to have a server be an Advanced server, start from the beginning with it as an Advanced Server. You have this option, but I really recommend planning ahead, and just making your server what you intend it to be down the road. I'm just going to click you Use Server Admin. It takes us straight to all of the services. Notice that it's, by default, got all of the services that are already running on the server checked, and functional, and active. These are the services that are available to us to configure.
By selecting the name of the server and going over to settings and coming down and clicking on Services, you see all of the services that could potentially be configured on the server. And the ones that have checkmarks in them are currently visible if you flip down this disclosure triangle next to the name of the server. And the ones without checkmarks in the check boxes simply aren't visible. It doesn't mean there not there or they are not available on the server, all you have to do to make them available is put a checkmark in the box and click Save, and they'll pop right up. I'm not going to do that right now. So here's all of the services that we have currently configured on our Workgroup server, and they're visible inside of Server Admin. If I click on AFP, for example, I can see all of the default settings that have been set by the Server Preferences for me, these are all the details that are underneath the surface.
I've got access to my logs, I've got access to my connection status, I've got my overview. And so all of that is good for reviewing information. I don't recommend that you go in and start changing services. Again if you're on a Standard or a Workgroup server, and the services have been started by that Server Preferences application, please leave them alone in here. If you need to do things with services that Server Preferences could not or did not start up, like for example oh, I don't know, let's go over to Settings and take a look. Let's see here Podcast Producer for example, if you wanted to start messing around with that, and you didn't happen to be on an Advanced Server, you can certainly turn that on and start messing around with it. But keep in mind that we really recommended if you're going to do these services that are available in advanced, but not not available by default in a Standard or Workgroup configuration, just make the decision to go with an Advanced server and go the easy route. So that's enough of me preaching, I'm going to go back here and we're going to click on the name of the server, and I'm just going to give a quick overview of what goes on in the top bar here. Because these are all of your server services that are available to you in Server Admin.
Whatever hardware you happen to be running your server on, a picture of that hardware will pop up here. The only difference that I found is if you're running a black Mac book as your server, it's going to show you the picture of the white Mac book, because that's sort of the default image that they've chosen. Other than that, the images are remarkably, exactly what you're running your software on. Really kind of cool. You've got the server serial number, this is the hardware serial number. You've also got access to a lot of other really great information; Running Services, down here under Status, you're going to have graphs.
The Logs which gives you access to Systems logs and Software Update Logs, and your Graphs, again, you've got CPU Usage and Network Traffic available here for you. And you can do that over a length of time going into the past, for both of those. You have access to File Sharing. File Sharing has now been moved out of Workgroup Manager and into the Server Admin application. That's is a very important new change, aside from the entire interface of this thing changing, from the last version to the new version. If you're a server administrator from Tiger, and you've just started your Leopard Server, and you're looking for File Sharing and where you're supposed to change where things are shared from, this is really different. It's not in Workgroup Manager anymore. I won't get in to too much detail here. Just know that File Sharing is here.
These are the software updates that are currently available for your server. They check for themselves automatically, but you've also got a Check Now button down here. If you've got items that are available to install, you can install them from here. And this little button, if you're on non XServe hardware, aside from going into the terminal and typing reboot, this is the only way in a GUI, that you can remotely restart a Mac OS X Server. If you have Apple remote desktop or if you're using Screen Sharing in the Finder, you can always get into the actual screen. But as far as Remote Admin applications, this is it.
if you're on an XServe of course, you've got Server Monitor that can do that as well. We've also got a Certificates button right up here, and the Certificates button gives you access to the default certificate that comes with the server. But you also have the ability to Add and Import new Certificates that have been generated and given to you by trusted third parties. So that is also located here in Server Admin. We've already been over here to Settings on Services, but if you go over to General, you have the ability to turn on things like Network Time server, Network Management Server for SNMP, you can turn on Remote Login or SSH, which is on by default, by the way.
Turn on Remote Management of which would enable the ARD software to work. And you can also turn on Server Side File Tracking for Mobile Home Sync. If you have users that are going to be using portable home directories, now this is definitely, definitely something that you would not be doing on a Workgroup server or Standard server, but on an Advance server, this is no big deal. Having users with their mobile home directories or the portable home directories on your server, you can turn on Server Side File Tracking, which will keep track for you, of the changes that are happening while someone is logged in to their Home folder, so that you don't need to do a complete scan of what's on the server or on the local client every time that folder gets synchronized back and forth. It saves time and resources. You next have a Network tab, and that gives you your computer's name, and its local host name. It also gives you its IP address and its DNS name.
Date and Time gives you the current Date and Time that is being pulled down from your Time server. We currently have the server set to pull its time from time.apple.com, but you could set up one server on your network to be a network time server, and point all of your other client machines and of all of the other servers to that one server, and then have that server--the one that is the Network Time server--for your entire network. You can have it pointed out to an outside Network Time server, that way all of your systems will stay coordinated around a specific time on your network. That helps a lot if you're going to be using Kerberos for authentication, because if your systems get out of whack by a few minutes, it gets pretty hairy with Kerberos.
You also get to choose your time zone, underneath Date and Time. Under notifications, this is really cool. You can basically set up the server so that it's going notify you if you're running out of disk space, or if Software updates have come available for a server. So if you're an administrator and you administer lots and lots of servers, you can have the servers take care of themselves, and just let you know if things need to be looked at. So, the two things that they're giving you the ability to be notified of are disk space and software updates. But this is something that I would love to see Apple do more of. It would be great if you can get notifications on more of these items. The reason why this is a big deal is, we're not in Server Monitor, we're in Server Admin. Server Admin works with any OS X Server, and that's fantastic, because that means that if you're running your OS X Server on a Mac Mini, you're going to get these notifications. Email notifications previously were really only available to administors were administering XServe who had the Server Monitor application that can be set up to e-mail you when a fan was blowing too hard. I mean the XServes are fantastic for remote monitoring, but not everybody runs their servers on XServes they would be great if you they did, but they don't.
So this is really a great thing. I love this. The Access panel, this gives you access to your Service Level Access Control lists. so this is different from ACLs in File Sharing, and we're going to have a whole talk on Service Level Access Control list later, but this is where you go to configure them for both services and administrators. And then again, we've got the Services panel right over here. The Services panel allows you to enable services, so that they can be configured. It doesn't turn them on, it just enables them to be configured.
Alright, so that is our brief tour of Server Admin. I'm going to show you one last thing before we go though. I'm going to add another server, and while I'm down here, I want to talk to you about these other options down here. We have the ability to add a server, we can also add a service for a server, and that allows us to avoid going through all the click throughs that are necessary to get through Services panel that you're looking at right now. You can also Add Smart Groups here. And adding a Smart Group is really fun because you can do things like, I'm going to say, File Servers, right here, and I'm going to say that if any of the following are true.
And I'm going to put a couple of these out here. And I'm going to say Running Services contains AFP, Running Services contains NFS, Running Services contains SMB, there we go, and Running Services contains FTP. All right, and what I'll get is a Smart Group of file servers, and then any server in my list that I've got configured in Server Admin that's running those services will pop up in this group. If you have a lot of different servers running, and you've got them separated into servers that are providing network services, and servers that are providing file services, and servers that are doing Xgrid and servers that are doing Podcast Producer. You can keep them organized into Smart Groups, and because they are Smart Groups, whenever you decide to reconfigure a server to do into something that it wasn't doing before, it'll automatically go into the right groups. You're always managing up to date information. I love the Smart Groups thing, very cool! If I click on this Plus button again, I've also got adding Static Groups.
So I can just create a group of servers and drag things in there manually. And of course you can add new servers. So adding new server, just select that option, you type in the address, I'm going to do the Advanced Server here. Any you type in the User Name and Password. Hit Continue, and you just get another server here. So between the two, if click on a Overview, you can see that we're going back and forth between two completely different servers. Advanced Server, which is sitting on a Xeon Mac pro tower, and our Workgroup, which is sitting on an older dual processor G5 tower. So completely different hardware, even though the pictures are the same, and alot of different services. As you can see down here in Services, when you run out of space, you get an extra column. And yes, we have all of the services running on our Advanced Server already. If I thumb through each of these items, you can see that what I have available to me here, is the same stuff that I have available to me under Workgroup.
It's just that the Advanced Server is intended to be configured here in the Server Admin application, and if I've got my Workgroup server here, I run the risk of actually using it and configuring it with Server Admin incorrectly. So I'm going to remove this, in fact. So now that I've gotten rid of my Workgroup server, here I only have my Advanced Server. But again, I could have multiple Advanced Servers here. I could have all kinds of servers listed in my server list, and they would all be right at my fingertips, easily accessed for a administration. Now, I'd like to point out this other little button, right up here, and then we're going to be done with this. We have a list of available servers, and you'll notice that I've got the Workgroup server here, and I've also got another server down here, this is Macintosh followed by its Mac address .local.
And that's because I've got a server sitting on my local area network, that has not yet been set up but is available. So that's what's in there. You're going to get basically everything that's booted into a Mac OS X Server Operating System. And that includes if it's booted at the Setup screen. So, I hope that gives you a better understanding of how Server Admin works.
- Understanding the three types of the Leopard server Using server administration tools on the Leopard client Setting up DNS services Configuring mail services on each type of server Applying web services to users and groups Testing Wiki access from a web browser Setting up calendar sharing using iCal Server Configuring VPN services Setting up a NetInstall Server Setting up PodCast Producer from top to bottom