In this video, Mike shows how virtual private networking (VPN) works and why people use VPN connections. He discusses the types of protocols and clients that make this work today, and walks through a generic VPN setup.
- I spent a lot of decades on the road, teaching people about computers and networks. I've got close to a million miles flying all over the world, and as a result of that, I've spent a lot of time in airports, wishing I was back at the office. It would be so nice if I'm sitting in Denver or in Amsterdam or somewhere in Canada, when I'm sitting with my laptop, it would be nice if I was back in the office where I could print to my printers, where I could share folders and I could access stuff off of my file servers. Well, a lot of other people do, too. or a VPN. Basically what we're doing is we're taking the internet, the most public of all networks, and turning it into a fake, a virtual, private network. We're taking the internet, and it's as though we're taking a chunk of CAT-6 cable from our switch all the way out to the Denver Airport and plugging me in. I've got an IP address, just like I'm at home. I can see all the shared resources on my local area network, just like I'm sitting at my desk. VPN is a powerful, powerful tool. But it doesn't happen automatically. You've got to set it up. Let me show you how VPNs work. So here's Mike's laptop, sitting at Denver International Airport. I like Denver. I like Denver. Anyway, so I've got a wireless connection, and I've probably got some address like 10.11.12.45 or something like that. Whatever I happen to connect into when I logged in. And I'm on the internet, and I'm browsing Google. Everything's great. Well what I'm going to do is I'm going to install special software called VPN Client that's going to do something miraculous. What it's going to do is that it's going to make a direct connection between my laptop and the WAN side of the router back at the office. So I know this IP address, because we pay for a static IP address. This IP address never changes. So one of the things I'm going to have to tell the VPN client is the IP address of the WAN side of my router at my network. The moment that happens, this connection kind of looks like a pipe that runs all the way from my computer all the way over to this router. Now, the moment this takes place, the router kind of lets me into the network and my DHCP server gives me an IP address, and all of a sudden, I have another connection that has the same address as though I was actually a DHCP client on my network. So we call this a tunnel, a VPN tunnel, that makes this connection. Notice I have a local address. If it's a private IP address, it still works, folks. and I can now suddenly see all my shared folders on my network, all my printers, appears on my computer right here. To make all this work, not only do you need a VPN client, but you're going to need a router which acts as the VPN endpoint in your local area network. Most people today will buy a special router that has the VPN endpoint software built into the router itself. There's a lot of ways to do it. What we're worried about is how do we connect to our router? And to do that, we're going to have to set up a VPN client, and we've got one that's built into Windows. Now, before I show you this, I need to warn you. The VPN client that's built into Windows is pretty limited. There are lots of ways to make VPNs, and they have all these protocol names like PPTP or L2TP or Ipsec and all these different names, and for a lot of these, they will actually give you software that you install on your computer to make the VPN client. Get the idea? I just want to show you using the built-in Windows client, You ready? So to set this up, we're going to head over to our Network Connections, and we'll go take a look. Here's VPN. And what we're going to do is we're going to Add a VPN connection. So the provider in this case, it's just a built-in Windows one. We call it any name we want to. I like to call it Phone Home. I need to know the address of the VPN router, so I have to know this, and I'm told that if I need to. The VPN type, Automatic is good, but here's where I'm talking about all these crazy protocols. When in doubt, leave it as Automatic. You are absolutely going to have to type in a username and password, or you might have to punch a Smart card into your laptop. Might have a one-turn password. You can even put a certificate on your computer that can allow you to log in, but username and password's the most common, and I'm going to save this. The moment I save that VPN connection, it actually manifests as a new network card. Now you got to think about this for a minute. With a VPN, I'm out on the internet somewhere with some IP address, who knows what? I'm now going to get an IP address of my LAN. So Microsoft likes to manifest this by showing you two network cards. Let me show you. So, here we go. Here's my ethernet card, and then here's my actual VPN connection. Now let me show you something. Right now, it's disconnected, but right click on this, go to Properties, there you go. You want it to have a DHCP when it connects to your local area network or do you want to give it a static? It really acts exactly like a network card. Now, to actually make the connection, all I got to do is double click on that and, assuming that I've got a good VPN server, And boom. You type Ipconfig, suddenly you're going to have whatever your internal network is Now, though, remember you're in Denver (laughs) and now you've got a problem. Let me show you what the problem is. So here you are in Denver, and you're connected to your local area network through your VPN and everything's great. You're printing to the printers at the office, and you're got access to the file server at the office. Everything's super. Except now all of a sudden, you open up a web browser, and you want to go to Google. Think about what's about to happen. If you open up a web browser, well, remember, you're connected to your local area network. So it's going to go through the internet, into your network, it's then going to go, oh, this is for Google, so it's going to go out, it's going to head over to Google, grab that web request, bring it back down in here, (laughs) and then bring it all the way back. In the VPN world, we call this, agh, I forgot. Ah, yep, that's it. Anyway, this is a big problem you run into with Microsoft VPN clients. If you need more advanced settings, you're usually going to be turning to third-party VPN clients that will take care of little issues like this and lots of others. (bouncy music)
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- Internet tiers
- How dial-up and broadband connections work
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
- Classic email protocols
- Setting up a generic VPN
- Typical IoT setups and configurations
- Setting up a new virtual machine (VM)
- Networking with VMs
- Cloud ownership