In the first virtualization video, Mike explores the concepts behind virtual machines. He discusses virtualization vs. emulation, how modern VMs work, and the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 hypervisors (the different hosts for virtual machines).
that have rocked the IT world more than virtualization. In this episode, I want to kind of get you through the concept of virtualization and show you how powerful and how amazing of a tool it is. So let's get started by taking a look at my screen. Hey, look! I'm on Linux right now. What you're looking at right here is a virtual machine. Inside this computer, and it is actually a virtual computer, as far as it's considered, it's on CPU, it's on RAM, it's on hardware, it's on USB ports, it's on optical media, it's on microphone and sound card, if you want, all of these is built into this little device, which is being hosted on top of Windows. This is not a remote access. This is physically all right here on this computer. This, my friends, is a virtual machine. A virtual machine is a completely self-contained computer that is running within a host operating system, well, at least in this case. When we're talking about virtualization, now first of all, I want to make sure we're very comfortable with the concept of virtualization versus emulation. Virtualization means I'm going to take some of the real physical hardware you have and allocate some of these to a separate internal system. This system will use a little bit of your CPU, a little bit of your RAM, a little bit of your hard drive. You can configure this stuff, but it cannot do anything that you don't already have. For example, on this particular computer, I couldn't run a Nintendo 64 virtual machine. That's emulation. Emulation is when you pretend to have hardware that you don't have. Nintendo 64 does not run on an Intel-type platform, so if I wanted to do something like that, then I would have to have a emulator. So we're not emulating, we are virtualizing. Now in order for virtualization to work, first of all, you need to have a CPU that supports virtualization. Now pretty much all of them do these days, but you may have to go into your system setup and make sure that it's turned on. So let me show you a screen snap from my system setup to show you one particular example of where you have to turn it on. So if you take a look right here, that little setting right there basically enable or disable, and I want to make sure that that's turned on before I started doing any of these groovy virtualization stuff. Okay, so you've got it turned on, so how do you start doing virtualization? Well, the first thing you're going to need is a hypervisor. A hypervisor is the actual host that runs the virtual machines. There are two kinds of hypervisors out there. Let me describe both of those to you. Here's all the hardware of my computer. This is my hard drives, my CPU. This is the actual real hardware of my computer. A type 1 hypervisor installs, you install it just like any other operating system onto that system. So a type 1 has nothing between it and the actual hardware itself. We then begin to create virtual machines that run on top of that hypervisor itself. A type 2 hypervisor, it's going to have some kind of operating system that's already installed, so this could be Windows, this could be Linux, this could be Mac. Doesn't matter. We already have an operating system running. And then we install the hypervisor, which installs like any application. We don't install it like an operating system. And then we run the virtual machines on top of that. So what I have right here in front of me is a very, very popular type of type 2 hypervisor called Oracle VM VirtualBox. So this is the hypervisor part. You can see I have one, two, there, four, five different virtual machines up and cooking, and I actually have one running right now, and that is my Ubuntu, which is running right here. If I want to fire up another one, let's say this Windows 10, I go ahead and start it, and it's go ahead, allocating resources from my physical real computer and it's booting this guy up. What's really important here And back in the old days, if you wanted to host a website, you have to fire up a computer and then you had to go and put a web server on it and all that. Today, what we can do is we can set up 50, 100 different websites on one that will be a powerful computer, and then that way we save on cost of hardware, we save on power cost, you save a lot of power doing the job of a bunch of machines. our website, for example, all we have to do is turn it off and get a backup copy of our file, and just start it right back up again. So in terms of security and recovery, virtual machines are absolutely incredible. VMs are so powerful today that you are not going to run into a situation where you go to a website that's on actual hardware anymore. All websites today are VMs. I'm sure there's three left out there, but I don't know about them. So, type 2 hypervisors are fantastic for individual systems. I use them all the time. For example, I want to test a Windows update or I want to try a new version of Ubuntu. Those are absolutely fantastic. But by putting the operating system between the hypervisor and the hardware, we don't get a lot of efficiencies. So most of the time, when we're talking about robust, serious hypervisors, we're talking about a type 1 hypervisor. A type 1 hypervisor is and of itself an operating system. However, it only has one job and that is to support and run virtual machines. There's a lot of names for these guys. VMware, for example, is a company that pretty much invented all these, and VMware has a number of very powerful type 1 hypervisors, ESXi would be one, Microsoft's Hyper-V is another one that's absolutely great. I'm not going to try to sell you on one. There's an open source one called KVM. Let me put up a picture of one of these. Unfortunately, if you just look at a type 1 hypervisor, they tend to be really boring. I mean, there's nothing for us to do actually at the individual machines. However, with most of these type 1 hypervisors, you have some type of client utility that is run on individual computers. We can pull virtual machines off of that guy and do what you want to do. So type 1 hypervisors do most of the heavy lifting but if you want to understand virtualization, we're going to stick with the type 2 hypervisor and VirtualBox from Oracle. It's just wonderful and did I mention it's also completely free? Okay. So we can do a lot with virtual machines. One of the things I want to show you. So on this particular virtual machine, one of the first things I want to do is in the VM itself, let's do an ip config. So his IP address is 10.0.2.4. Got that idea? Now on the host machine, I do an ipconfig, and you see his IPv4 Address is 192.168.4.88. The answer is yes, I can. We can create virtual networks. I have a virtual network card built into the system. I can create virtual switches and that router can do NAT.
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- Internet tiers
- How dial-up and broadband connections work
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
- Classic email protocols
- Setting up a generic VPN
- Typical IoT setups and configurations
- Setting up a new virtual machine (VM)
- Networking with VMs
- Cloud ownership