Understand the reason why the Bauhaus was founded.
- The Bauhaus, a German word meaning house of building, emerged from political, social and technological change in the 19th century. The idea of a school encompassing the totality of all artistic media, including fine art, industrial design, graphic design, typography, interior design and architecture, was a radical departure from the traditional education of artists and designers. The 19th century saw the rise of the Second Industrial Revolution, now products were mass-produced by an increasingly urban and factory-based society.
Quality and design were ignored for the sake of profit and ease of manufacturing. This also led to the rise of advertising and the beginnings of the graphic design profession. As more products were produced, manufacturers needed to advertise their goods. There are many reasons for the start of World War I, one was the rigid aristocracy of the 19th century. During the 19th century, Queen Victoria, in England, created a wide and interwoven family tree, her children and grandchildren married into or were monarchs in almost every European nation.
Every ruling family in Europe was related as cousins, nephews, nieces, aunts and uncles. Her goal and hope was to maintain peace based on a close, familial network. But like many families, the opposite happened. In 1914, World War I began. Germany and much of Europe was devastated. After the war, many movements began that looked to a universal approach to design that bypassed politics. These designers believed that it was the aristocracy that led to World War I.
They vowed to work for the common man, the masses, created an equal and egalitarian society. Before World War I, the Arts and Crafts movement attempted to introduce the idea of quality, craft and handmade. After the devastation of the war, these ideas had less relevance. In 1919, Walter Gropius, looking for a way to educate artists and designers following this philosophy, merged the Weimar Institute of Fine Arts and the Weimar School of Arts and Crafts to establish the Bauhaus.
This would be a place where designers could learn the importance of craft and the handmade. They would unite society and create a new utopia, where design of all kinds would make a better life. The new vision will be based on universal ideas such as pure geometry, mathematics and logic, rather than political ideas. He agreed with the need for quality from the Arts and Crafts movement, but evolved their ideas of reverence for the handmade by adding technology and the machine-made to their mission.
Gropius soon attracted the most renowned avant-garde creatives at the time, including avant-garde painters Johannes Itten and Lyonel Feininger and sculptor Gerhard Marcks. This led to a groundbreaking curriculum that would change design and design education to this day.
- Bauhaus: when and why
- Graphic design, advertising, and typography
- Bauhaus photography
- Bauhaus architecture
- Painting, ceramics, and sculpture