This video lists the five configuration prerequisites required from your server before you can install Oracle 12c.
- [Instructor] Before installing the Oracle 12c Database, we first have to make sure we've done our homework and make sure server prerequisites are in place. Let's start by listing the things you need in advance before we can start installation. The first thing, and a very obvious thing is that you need well, a server, a computer on which you want to install Oracle. During this course, you will probably be installing Oracle on your own laptop, maybe in a virtual machine, but we will be discussing the prerequisites for installing Oracle also in a production environment, so that you will know what preparations you have to make sure you have done before you can get Oracle installed in the real world.
First, you'll need to install a server for Oracle. That server will need to run either Linux, Windows or Unix. Most Oracle customers nowadays, usually choose Linux as it's the most popular operating system for running Oracle on, but Windows and various, rephrase. But Windows and various Unix flavors such as Solaris or AIX are great as well. If you are going to be using Linux, Reddit, Synths or Oracle AIX are great options for Linux distribution.
For a production Oracle Database in a real environment, the server will usually have at least eight CPU cores and 64 gigabytes of memory. It's not that you cannot install Oracle on a less powerful server, for sure you can, but this is a good starting point in terms of having configuration for a real production Oracle Database in the real world. Next, you will also need storage for your Oracle Database. Remember your database data files have to reside somewhere. It's usually preferred to have a dedicated storage for your Oracle Database for performance and high availability purposes.
It's usually ascend or nest storage, that is, enterprise grade storage that provides built-in redundancy. We usually prefer not to use a local disk for the Oracle Database storage in real Oracle environments. That's because a local disk physically installed inside the Oracle server provides very little high availability capabilities, and remember if you lose the local disk on which your database stores its data files, you lost your Oracle Database. That's a big no. For Oracle learning environments and training purposes, go ahead and use a local disk, but just be advised that in production environment you should not do that.
Moving along to operating system configuration, you will also need to make sure that your server host name can be resolved from either DNS, which is Domain Name Services or the local host file. These are just different methods to ensure that the host name for the server on which you install Oracle can be resolved to an IP and the other way around. The easiest way is to usually add the server host name in your local server host file. The host file is used for resolving IP addresses to host names and vice versa.
Don't be afraid of all of this networking stuff seems a little bit too complex. Usually database professionals do not have to deal with network configuration. That's why you have network experts after all, but in our environment we will need to perform these actions in order to get Oracle up and running. Okay, so let's perform the changes we've just discussed, adding the Oracle host name to the etc host file in our Linux virtual machine. So our first step would be to edit the local server etc/host file so that we can have proper DNS host name name resolution for our Oracle server.
In order to do that please switch to the root user on your Linux virtual machine. Type the password, and there you should see the root prompt inside your terminal window. Following that please type v-i which is the Linux standard text editor and specify the path for the local host file which is /etc/hosts. Typing enter will open this file.
Once you have the file open, please go to the end of the second line. It should look something similar to what you see on the screen right now. Press the letter i on your keyboard so you enter insert mode, and add a new empty line. Here is where we will configure the local name resolution for our server. Inside the Course Exercise Files folder, you have a file called 08_01.txt.
Please take the first line from this file, copy it. We will also need to replace this dummy hostname.domain and host name entries with their actual real values. In order to determine you Oracle server host name, please open another terminal window. I'm going to be switching to the terminal window on the right and type the host name command. The output would be the fully qualified server host name.
Copy this value, go back to the first terminal window and be sure to replace the hostname.domain placeholder with the fully qualified host name. Also, be sure to replace the host name placeholder with just the host name without the domain. Notice I'm deleting everything that's after the dot. You can now save this file. In order to do that press on the escape key.
Then colon and the letter w. Pressing enter will save the file and as you can see on the bottom of the screen, we've got a prompt that the file was saved. We can now exit the v-i text editor by pressing colon and the letter q. Pressing enter will bring us back to our terminal. Now that we've got the host name resolution in place, we are ready to go to the next step.
The next step would be to install the Oracle prerequisites RPM. There are some operating system configuration and software dependencies that need to be addressed before we can install Oracle. We can do that manually ourselves, but there is no reason to do that anymore. For Linux installations, Oracle has their own special RPM package that once you install it, it will take care of all of the software dependencies for you. It will also modify any required Linux kernel parameters as well as create the Oracle user automatically for you.
When installing Oracle on Linux, the Oracle software, that is the Oracle instance on our server will be installed and started using a dedicated user. Most DBAs choose to call this user simply Oracle, but it's up to us. So, let's go ahead and install the Oracle prerequisites RPM on our server. Note that this RPM is only available if you're installing Oracle on Oracle Linux which is the Linux distribution we are using in our course for all of our demos.
So, in order to install the prerequisites RPM, make sure you are connected to the server with the root user and type the following command: yum space install space Oracle-rdbms - server - 12cR1 - preinstall.
This command will install the Oracle prerequisites RPM for us. Typing enter will begin the installation process. You will be prompted by the operating system to install this RPM. Just press y and enter. You might get additional prompts confirming the installation for all of them, just be sure to press y and enter. The operating system will install the prerequisites RPM for us and by doing so configure the kernel parameters, take care of RPM software dependencies, as well as create an Oracle user.
We can verify that the Oracle user was created for us by typing i-d space Oracle. As you see we suddenly have an Oracle user created in our operating system. Pretty cool, right? So, after we have installed the Oracle prerequisites RPM, our next step would be to create the directories required for the Oracle software as well as the Oracle data. Remember, you are going to be installing the Oracle software, that is binaries to a directory on your Linux virtual machine.
Let's quickly do that. Switching back to our virtual machine, let's first of all clear the screen from of all of the messages we got so far just so we can have a fresh start. So, I'm typing the clear command, pressing enter. Ah, there we go. Much nicer. Now, in order to create the directories required for the Oracle software, first make sure you are connected to your server using the root user, and run the filing command, m-k-d-i-r which means create new directory.
Space dash p, which means also create any required sub-directories, space, and here you can specify the directory name, where you want, rephrase, and here you can specify the directory name where you want the Oracle software to be installed. I'm going to be using a great default value which is /u01/app /Oracle. Typing enter will create that directory. We can confirm the creation of this directory by typing ls space - l space /u01/app/Oracle.
We can see that the directory has been created, but it's empty. That's because we haven't installed Oracle just yet. The next step would be to make sure that this directory will be owned by the Oracle operating system user. We need to set up proper permissions so that the Oracle operating system user can install Oracle into this directory. In order to do that, please type the following command: c-h own, which is the Linux command for changing ownership of a directory, space dash capital R space Oracle, which is our operating system Oracle user name, :oinstall, which is the Oracle user group name and the root folder for the directory just created, /u01.
Let's type enter. Let's also change the permissions for the directory by typing c-h mod space -R space 775, which is the Linux permission mask we want to use, space /u01 and press enter. That's it. We now have the directory in place to which we will install the Oracle software. The directory we've just created will be used to install the Oracle software binaries.
However, there is still one more directory that we have to create where we want Oracle to store its database's storage. That is the Oracle data files, so let's quickly create this directory as well. Remember this is the directory where the actual Oracle Database storage files will be created. For our demo, we're going to be using a directory called mnt/san storage. Simulating enterprise grade storage, we don't have it in our virtual machine, but I want you to be ready for production environments as well, /oradata.
Pressing enter will create that directory for us. Remember this directory, the one we just created will be used for the Oracle data files database storage. The previous directory we just created, will be used for the Oracle software. These are separate directories. In the real production Oracle environment the /u01 directory will be a local directory on the server and used for the Oracle software binaries while the /mnt directory is here to simulate external enterprise storage.
In a real production environment this is the location your storage guys will tell you, "You know what? "Please place your database storage right there." Let's also change the permissions for this /mnt directory we created so that the Oracle operating system users can write and read the data from it. So, in order to do that we're going to be writing the same commands we previously executed, meaning c-h own space - R oracle:dba and specify the Oracle Database storage directory and also change the permissions.
c-h mod space -R 775 and the Oracle Database storage directory. That's it. We now have all of the directories we need created and their permissions set accordingly, so that we can install the Oracle Database.
After completing this course, you'll have fundamentals required for installation, configuration, and administration of an Oracle 12c database.
- Database instance and storage
- Instance memory pools
- Instance background processes
- Client connections
- Database storage file types
- Control files and backup files
- Multitenant databases
- Starting and stopping the database
- Installing Oracle 12c software
- Using the developer tools
- Database management