This video sets the stage for answering the first of the two major questions for the course: What is additive manufacturing? It does so by identifying seven major AM process types, along with some of the specific AM technologies that represent them. After you watch the video, take the practice quiz to solidify your knowledge.
Hi, welcome back, and welcome to Youngstown, Ohio. I'm here at America Makes, the National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute, to answer the first of the two major questions that we have in this course. That is, specifically, what is additive manufacturing? We have to recognize that additive manufacturing is not a single thing, but actually represents a set of processes and underlying technologies, each of which applies in different context. Now, I'm happy to say that I'm joined here by two important collaborators. The first is Amy Elliott, an engineer from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who specializes in additive manufacturing.
And Kevin Collier, the factory innovation manager here at America Makes. We're going to rely on Amy and Kevin to share their expertise about the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of each of the additive manufacturing technologies that we'll look at. Now, the American Society for Testing and Materials, otherwise known as ASTM, defines seven key processes that we can think of under which the entire technology architecture for additive manufacturing actually exists. We're going to take a look at this as part of our framework.
Let's have a look now. The first of the processes we're going to look at is vat photopolymerization. That's the process in which liquid photopolymer, or liquid plastic, if you will, in a vat is selectively cured, normally using UV light. The technology that we're going to specifically look at there is stereolithography, or SLA. Our second process will be material jetting. That's a process in which droplets of build material are selectively deposited on a build platform and then, frequently, cured, once again, using ultraviolet light.
Our third process is material extrusion. That's a common additive manufacturing process in which material is selectively dispensed through a heated nozzle. We'll look at this in the context of two related technologies, fused deposition modeling and fused filament fabrication. Our fourth process is powder bed fusion. That's a process in which thermal energy, think of lasers, is used to fuse material, either metal or plastics, in a powder bed. We'll look at two technologies here.
The first being electron beam melting, and the second being selective laser sintering. Our fifth process is binder jetting. This is a process in which powders are bound together not using heat or UV light, but rather using a type of glue that holds it together until additional processing can be performed. Here, we'll look at binder jetting as a general class of technologies. Our sixth process is sheet lamination. This is an older additive manufacturing technology in which sheets of material, be they paper, plastic, or metal, are bonded together to form an object.
We're going to pay special attention here to ultrasonic consolidation. Our last process is directed energy deposition. This is a process by which thermal energy, think of a laser, is used to fuse material as it's being deposited rather than having that same laser be applied to a bed of powder that already exists. Over the next eight segments, we'll discuss each of these technologies and processes in some depth with the goal of positioning you to have the same conversation with others in your organization. Let's get started.
- What is additive manufacturing?
- Working with light-activated polymers
- Resin printing
- Modeling and extruding materials
- Fusing, melting, and sintering
- Binder jetting
- Laminating sheets
- Developing a product
- Shaping the direction of tooling
- Evolving a supply chain
- Evolving a product
- Evolving a business model