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Styling the Single Post Template

From: WordPress: Building Themes from Scratch Using Underscores

Video: Styling the Single Post Template

With our content structure and markup in place, it's time to This post contains all the markups someone would be And since the background color is a layout style, this is where we've defined All these styles are general, so they're going to go in style.css.

Styling the Single Post Template

With our content structure and markup in place, it's time to start styling the single pulse template to make it match our design. So here I want you to start out by going down in your theme unit test data and finding a pulse called Markup: HTML Tags and Formatting. This post contains all the markups someone would be able to add using the WYSIWYG editor within WordPress. So when you add a post, you can add a bunch of different markup, and all of that markup is covered within this post. Meaning, if you apply styles that make this post look good, then you've covered all your bases.

Now I'm going to start applying styles from the top down, but before I do that I need to make one crucial change. If you look back at the design, you'll notice that the single post template, we have a white background. In the indexed template, we have a rasterized background. Now the reason why everything is currently gray is because we've applied that rasterized background, or at least the beginning of it onto everything in our site. So what we need to do now is target just single posts and single pages, and apply a white background instead.

So when people visit the site, they'll have a visual cue whether they're on a index page or a single post or single page. And here, WordPress has a trick up its sleeve. If you inspect the code for any page within WordPress, you'll see that the body tag has a set of classes assigned to it that tell you where you are. So right now, I'm on a single post and therefore the first class is single and the next one is single post. If I were on a single page, it would say page instead. And we can use these classes to target specific pages and posts within our site.

So now we can use the single class and the page class to target just single posts and pages and give them a white background. Here it's important to remember how we structure the CSS in our theme. All general styles go in style.css and all layout styles go in layouts and content sidebar. And since the background color is a layout style, this is where we've defined it, so right now, we have site content, and it sets a gray background. So what I want to do is specify just single posts and single pages and give them a white background instead, so I'll go to my code snippets and this first code snippet here does just that.

I'll replace site content here with the new one. All it does is it adds padding bottom to all my side content. We still have the same gray background, but now I also say on single posts and single pages, the site content is set to white. So now we have that white background we want, and I can go back to my browser and test it. And you'll see, my single post has a white background, but if I go back to Home, the background is gray. Now I can start focusing on the actual content on the page, and here I have to add a lot of styles, so I'll start at the top and work my way down.

All these styles are general, so they're going to go in style.css. So, I'm going to close content-sidebar.css and open style.css instead. And here, the styles are going to apply to both posts and pages. So I'll find posts and pages, that's 10.1, and I'll navigate to it. Here we have 10.1, and here, you see, there are some styles already that I may or may not use, but I'm probably not going to. So I'm going to add new styles on top here, and these are, I mean, they're going to be typography styles.

If you go to the code snippets, you'll see that, here, we have a very large bulk of style code that we need to add in. So let me start at the top and work my way through it, and explain what's going on. So I'll start by adding the entry title, so this is the title of the post, and if you look at the design, you'll see that the entry title is very large and very heavy. So here we have a heavy font that has a font size of 40, and there's also a little bit of margin underneath to push all the content down, and it's black. So if I apply this entry title style, we'll change the title in the single post and this same style will also change to entry titles everywhere else on the site.

So all my index pages and everywhere will have this much bolder title. Next I'm going to style the entry content anchors. So these are the links inside of the post because right now if you look at the post, you won't be able to find any links. So what I've done is, for the entry contents for the main post items, any link will have an underline. So add that in and that gives all my links an underline. Then we get to the main typography section, and here I want to apply a relatively new concept that sizes the fonts based on the size of screen you are using.

So, for very large screens, we have a large font. And then when you go down to smaller screens, you get a smaller font. So, first, I'm going to apply the default font size, and here I'm styling all the different elements. All your age tags, your paragraphs, unordered lists, ordered lists, and the blog quote. I'll copy this out and paste it in. And if you'll look through this, you'll see that everything is quite large. The text is 20 pixels large and all the headings are very large, and our blog quote is 28 pixels tall. So when I now reload my page with the new typography inserted, you'll see all my font is relatively large.

And what I want to do now is make it so that when you scale down the window size to a mobile size, the font with shrink along with the window. So I've created a media query that targets any window that's smaller than 680 pixels, and here I'm restyling every single element that I just styled before. And all I'm doing is changing the sizes to a percentage wise small than what it was before. So I'll copy that out and paste it in directly below the styles that are currently inserted because, like I said earlier, I like to add my media queries as close to the main element as possible.

And now, I'll go and resize my windows, I'll reload it first, and then I'll scroll up a bit, and I'll resize my window and you can actually see the font change. So when I go down to a certain size here, right there, you see the font get smaller, and this applies to every single font element because I want them to be easy to read on a smaller screens. Now of course, this is just two steps. You can add as many steps as you'd like here, so you can have different font sizes or just mobile devices, and then the different font size for very large devices, and maybe TVs, but this is the general concept.

Now that I've styled the main content, I also need to apply styles to my meta content. So here you have your categories, all the post meta content, and at the bottom, we also have the tags. So in the code snippets, you'll find under Meta, we first have the category list, and this changes the font family and also the sizing of the category lists, so now you'll see we have a nice category here. And when you hover over the category item, you get an underline to highlight that this is a link. Then I'll style the post-meta here, so here, we have the entry meta contents.

And based on the design, the entry meta is quite small and any link within the entry meta has a heavier font. So the links here are bolded, whereas the rest of the text is just regular weight. And finally, I'll scroll down to the bottom and find my tag list. And here I am going to apply some styles to just the tags. And you'll see that these styles change the appearance of the tags, and they also list the tags horizontally by setting each item to display as an inline block. Now I'll reload the page a final time, and my tag list now appears as it does in my designs.

So now we've applied the general topography styles for my post. The next step is to make this entry meta appear as it's supposed to because right now it's shifted in, and it looks really weird. And you'll remember that in my design, the entry meta actually appears on the side here instead. So that's next.

Show transcript

This video is part of

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  1. 10m 55s
    1. Welcome
      1m 4s
    2. What to know before you start this course
      2m 40s
    3. How this course and the lesson files work
      3m 12s
    4. Introducing Simone: A preview of the final project
      3m 59s
  2. 21m 28s
    1. Installing and running WordPress on your computer
      3m 53s
    2. Getting and installing Underscores
      4m 11s
    3. Installing WordPress Theme Unit Test data
      4m 18s
    4. Installing the Developer plugin
      2m 58s
    5. Installing and setting up NetBeans or another IDE
      6m 8s
  3. 16m 15s
    1. Designing for mobile, content, and style
      4m 52s
    2. How do WordPress themes work?
      4m 48s
    3. Understanding the WordPress template hierarchy
      2m 19s
    4. Underscores: An overview
      4m 16s
  4. 37m 5s
    1. Setting up style.css
      4m 47s
    2. Configuring baseline settings and functions
      6m 6s
    3. Enabling custom fonts and font icons
      5m 44s
    4. Applying global styles
      5m 11s
    5. Styling basic layout components
      6m 19s
    6. Making the site layout responsive
      8m 58s
  5. 23m 18s
    1. Styling the default header
      6m 25s
    2. Hiding the site title and tagline
      5m 32s
    3. Adding an optional header image function
      5m 23s
    4. Placing the header image behind the site title
      5m 58s
  6. 40m 55s
    1. Setting up menus
      3m 12s
    2. Styling the menu
      7m 42s
    3. Using Superfish for accessible menus
      8m 0s
    4. Making the menu responsive
      7m 3s
    5. Creating a custom social media menu
      5m 51s
    6. Styling the menu with icons from Font Awesome
      9m 7s
  7. 18m 9s
    1. Adding the search form
      6m 27s
    2. Adding the search icon
      6m 55s
    3. Adding show/hide functionality to the search form with jQuery
      4m 47s
  8. 33m 20s
    1. Adding a widgetized area to the footer
      7m 10s
    2. Using the Monster widget plugin to test all widgets
      2m 11s
    3. Styling the footer
      3m 6s
    4. General widget styling
      5m 33s
    5. Adding custom styles to specific widgets
      7m 34s
    6. Using Masonry to make footer widgets responsive
      7m 46s
  9. 54m 49s
    1. Changing the Single Post Template content structure
      5m 54s
    2. Changing the output of meta elements
      7m 2s
    3. Styling the Single Post Template
      7m 57s
    4. Making post meta responsive
      6m 21s
    5. Styling blockquotes
      5m 39s
    6. Creating pull quotes and pull images
      5m 1s
    7. Working with image captions
      4m 27s
    8. Working with image galleries
      4m 57s
    9. Single-post navigation
      7m 31s
  10. 30m 23s
    1. Working with the comments template
      8m 42s
    2. Using Gravatars in comments
      2m 42s
    3. Styling comments
      7m 26s
    4. Highlighting post author comments
      3m 36s
    5. Styling the comment form and messages
      7m 57s
  11. 18m 43s
    1. How do featured images (post thumbnails) work?
      2m 57s
    2. Defining featured image sizes
      3m 30s
    3. Generating new featured images with a plugin
      1m 46s
    4. Adding featured images to a template
      5m 7s
    5. Styling the featured image
      5m 23s
  12. 1h 2m
    1. The index template hierarchy
      2m 21s
    2. Customizing and styling index templates
      10m 10s
    3. Displaying excerpts or full content on index pages
      3m 6s
    4. Adding a custom Read More link
      3m 48s
    5. Adding featured images
      4m 0s
    6. Creating custom pagination navigation
      6m 4s
    7. Highlighting Sticky Posts
      2m 55s
    8. Creating custom post format templates
      5m 30s
    9. Highlighting the most recent post in the index template
      7m 22s
    10. Embracing modular design
      2m 29s
    11. Working with archive.php
      5m 54s
    12. Customizing the search results and the 404 template
      8m 28s
  13. 9m 7s
    1. Styling pages
      3m 4s
    2. Creating custom page templates
      6m 3s
  14. 4m 30s
    1. Adding editor styles to match front-end styles
      4m 30s
  15. 2m 20s
    1. Further learning
      2m 20s

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