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Setting up menus

From: WordPress: Building Themes from Scratch Using Underscores

Video: Setting up menus

Now that the branding section of the header is out of Before we start working on the menu itself, let me Once the menu has been defined by functions.php, it has to So if you scroll down into header.php and go past the header section, that shows The anchor is wrapped around some text that Now that you know how the menu has been implemented

Setting up menus

Now that the branding section of the header is out of the way, it's time to get to work on the menu. The default menu that comes with Underscores is pretty good out of the box. It handles drop downs and multilevel drop downs, and it also has a responsive feature. So if we reduce the width of the screen enough, down to 600 pixels, the menu is replaced with this single word that says menu. And if you click on it, it opens the menu itself. This is all handled with JavaScript and CSS, and later on in the course, we'll work to make this mobile menu look better than it does right now.

Before we start working on the menu itself, let me show you how the menu is implemented out of the box. First, I'm going to go to the WordPress toolbar and select Menus, and this takes me to Appearance and Menus. And here I'm going to click on Manage Locations. And here you see, in the theme, we have one menu location called Primary Menu. The menu itself is implemented from functions.PHP, so if we go to functions.php, you'll remember from earlier in the course, that the primary menu was defined here under register_nav_menus.

And here we have Primary Menu. Once the menu has been defined by functions.php, it has to be displayed somewhere within the template and that somewhere is in header.php. So if you scroll down into header.php and go past the header section, that shows the image and the title and description that we worked on in the previous chapter. We get to the nav section, and within the nav section, you will see right here at the bottom, we have wp_nav_menu, theme_location, primary. So this is the function that calls in the menu itself.

Now if we look closely, you'll see that in addition to the call for the menu, we also have some additional elements. At the top of the nav, we have an H1 heading that's called menu toggle, and it displays the word Menu. So this is that button that you saw when I made the screen smaller that shows the menu, and then you click on it and it opens the responsive menu. This menu button is normally hidden, both in JavaScript and CSS, and only becomes visible on smaller screens. Next you have another section that's really important, and this is an anchor or link that has the classes skip link and screen reader text.

The anchor is wrapped around some text that says, Skip to Content, and this is a link that will only appear if you use a screen reader or if you use a text-to-speech browser. In those cases, when the person browsing the site gets to this link, they can choose to pass the menu and go straight to the content because if you have a large menu, like we do now, having to go through the entire menu can be really annoying if you're just looking for the content. Now, this Skip Link link is hidden using the Screen Reader Text class, and you'll see later on the course, we'll use this class to hide other elements as well.

Now that you know how the menu has been implemented into our theme and where the menu appears within our templates, we're ready to start working on the output of the menu and make it look the way it does in our design.

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This video is part of

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  1. 10m 55s
    1. Welcome
      1m 4s
    2. What to know before you start this course
      2m 40s
    3. How this course and the lesson files work
      3m 12s
    4. Introducing Simone: A preview of the final project
      3m 59s
  2. 21m 28s
    1. Installing and running WordPress on your computer
      3m 53s
    2. Getting and installing Underscores
      4m 11s
    3. Installing WordPress Theme Unit Test data
      4m 18s
    4. Installing the Developer plugin
      2m 58s
    5. Installing and setting up NetBeans or another IDE
      6m 8s
  3. 16m 15s
    1. Designing for mobile, content, and style
      4m 52s
    2. How do WordPress themes work?
      4m 48s
    3. Understanding the WordPress template hierarchy
      2m 19s
    4. Underscores: An overview
      4m 16s
  4. 37m 5s
    1. Setting up style.css
      4m 47s
    2. Configuring baseline settings and functions
      6m 6s
    3. Enabling custom fonts and font icons
      5m 44s
    4. Applying global styles
      5m 11s
    5. Styling basic layout components
      6m 19s
    6. Making the site layout responsive
      8m 58s
  5. 23m 18s
    1. Styling the default header
      6m 25s
    2. Hiding the site title and tagline
      5m 32s
    3. Adding an optional header image function
      5m 23s
    4. Placing the header image behind the site title
      5m 58s
  6. 40m 55s
    1. Setting up menus
      3m 12s
    2. Styling the menu
      7m 42s
    3. Using Superfish for accessible menus
      8m 0s
    4. Making the menu responsive
      7m 3s
    5. Creating a custom social media menu
      5m 51s
    6. Styling the menu with icons from Font Awesome
      9m 7s
  7. 18m 9s
    1. Adding the search form
      6m 27s
    2. Adding the search icon
      6m 55s
    3. Adding show/hide functionality to the search form with jQuery
      4m 47s
  8. 33m 20s
    1. Adding a widgetized area to the footer
      7m 10s
    2. Using the Monster widget plugin to test all widgets
      2m 11s
    3. Styling the footer
      3m 6s
    4. General widget styling
      5m 33s
    5. Adding custom styles to specific widgets
      7m 34s
    6. Using Masonry to make footer widgets responsive
      7m 46s
  9. 54m 49s
    1. Changing the Single Post Template content structure
      5m 54s
    2. Changing the output of meta elements
      7m 2s
    3. Styling the Single Post Template
      7m 57s
    4. Making post meta responsive
      6m 21s
    5. Styling blockquotes
      5m 39s
    6. Creating pull quotes and pull images
      5m 1s
    7. Working with image captions
      4m 27s
    8. Working with image galleries
      4m 57s
    9. Single-post navigation
      7m 31s
  10. 30m 23s
    1. Working with the comments template
      8m 42s
    2. Using Gravatars in comments
      2m 42s
    3. Styling comments
      7m 26s
    4. Highlighting post author comments
      3m 36s
    5. Styling the comment form and messages
      7m 57s
  11. 18m 43s
    1. How do featured images (post thumbnails) work?
      2m 57s
    2. Defining featured image sizes
      3m 30s
    3. Generating new featured images with a plugin
      1m 46s
    4. Adding featured images to a template
      5m 7s
    5. Styling the featured image
      5m 23s
  12. 1h 2m
    1. The index template hierarchy
      2m 21s
    2. Customizing and styling index templates
      10m 10s
    3. Displaying excerpts or full content on index pages
      3m 6s
    4. Adding a custom Read More link
      3m 48s
    5. Adding featured images
      4m 0s
    6. Creating custom pagination navigation
      6m 4s
    7. Highlighting Sticky Posts
      2m 55s
    8. Creating custom post format templates
      5m 30s
    9. Highlighting the most recent post in the index template
      7m 22s
    10. Embracing modular design
      2m 29s
    11. Working with archive.php
      5m 54s
    12. Customizing the search results and the 404 template
      8m 28s
  13. 9m 7s
    1. Styling pages
      3m 4s
    2. Creating custom page templates
      6m 3s
  14. 4m 30s
    1. Adding editor styles to match front-end styles
      4m 30s
  15. 2m 20s
    1. Further learning
      2m 20s

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