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Applying global styles

From: WordPress: Building Themes from Scratch Using Underscores

Video: Applying global styles

When I build WordPress themes, I try to work in a systematic fashion. In my design, my general font size 18 pixels, I'm I'll reload it, and now we get a new font.

Applying global styles

When I build WordPress themes, I try to work in a systematic fashion. First, apply CSS to the existing elements to get the existing theme to match my designs as closely as possible, and then add new elements and change those existing elements one at a time and style them as they appear. Now that the custom web fonts are enqueued, we can start working on the overall appearance of our site by applying CSS to what is already there. We'll start by applying a set of global styles that control the overall appearance of the content on the site, including font families, colors, sizes, and other basic elements.

All this work is done inside style.css. Now if you scroll past the intro, you'll see a section known as reset. Underscore ships with a CSS reset which overrides any preconceived style notions browsers might have because different browsers think that different elements, like headers and main body content, should look different. We want them all to look the same across different browsers. Applying this reset means the theme has to style every single HTML element from scratch.

Some of this work has already been done by the creators of Underscores, so what we're going to do is add our own style and class to the existing styles. You should never touch the CSS reset, so start off by scrolling down until you get to the typography section. Here, we'll begin by setting the default font family and font size for all content, and here you see something kind of neat. The Underscores theme uses rem for font sizing. Now, a rem is relative m size, and if you've ever worked with m sizes, which are really important if you're going to make response designs, you know that getting the math right with m sizes can be really complex.

Well, a rem size is a smart relative solution. A rem size is relative to the outermost defined font size, which means the body. And in the reset, the body is already been set to 100%. That means if you want to match, let's say, 16 pixels in font size, you say 1.6 rem. If you want to match 18, you say 1.8, and so on. So, by using rem sizes, it's much easier to get the relative font size right. However, not every browser supports rem, so we also have to have a fallback, which is why we have the pixel size as well.

In my design, my general font size 18 pixels, I'm going to change it here to 18 and 1.8 rem. I'm also going to change the font-family to just serif, and then its PT Serif that I want to use. So now I have both the custom font and the fallback. I'm also going to use HSLA colors in my theme, so I'll say color again, and hsl, then 0, hue, 0% saturation and 25% lightness, which makes for a slight gray.

And again, I have to still have the hex color as a fallback, and that's all I'm going to do right now. Now I'm going to save style.css, go back to my browser. This is what the site looked like before. I'll reload it, and now we get a new font. So this is PT Serif and you see that the font is also slightly bigger than it was before. Now that I've styled every single piece of text on the entire site in the same font, I need to apply extra styling to my headings because you'll remember that all my headings and some other content uses the Lato font instead.

So I'll go back and scroll down and find the global styles for the headings. This will apply to every single heading, so the sizes will come later, and here I'm going to change the headings so that it clears just to the right. I'll set the font weights to 900, which is the heaviest font, font family to Lato, and fallback to sans-serif. I'll set the color to black, and an HSL color. And now, I can save this rule set, reload my page again, and you'll see now, all my headings have the Lato font size.

Now, because we're starting from scratch, we need to restyle a lot of the content. And watching me do this all by hand would take a long time and be quite frustrating, so in the code snippets file, you'll find all the styles that you need to apply. And all the styles that are listed in the code snippets for this movie are styles that you'll be replacing inside this list. So if you scroll down, you'll see, for example, that we have under forms, there's a section for form buttons that you'll replace and then further down, we also have a section for links that you'll replace.

So, before we continue, go check out the code snippets file. Grab the cold snippets for this movie and slot them in where appropriate by matching the rule sets that are in the snippets file to the rule sets inside style.css. And then when you're done, we'll continue with the next step.

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This video is part of

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  1. 10m 55s
    1. Welcome
      1m 4s
    2. What to know before you start this course
      2m 40s
    3. How this course and the lesson files work
      3m 12s
    4. Introducing Simone: A preview of the final project
      3m 59s
  2. 21m 28s
    1. Installing and running WordPress on your computer
      3m 53s
    2. Getting and installing Underscores
      4m 11s
    3. Installing WordPress Theme Unit Test data
      4m 18s
    4. Installing the Developer plugin
      2m 58s
    5. Installing and setting up NetBeans or another IDE
      6m 8s
  3. 16m 15s
    1. Designing for mobile, content, and style
      4m 52s
    2. How do WordPress themes work?
      4m 48s
    3. Understanding the WordPress template hierarchy
      2m 19s
    4. Underscores: An overview
      4m 16s
  4. 37m 5s
    1. Setting up style.css
      4m 47s
    2. Configuring baseline settings and functions
      6m 6s
    3. Enabling custom fonts and font icons
      5m 44s
    4. Applying global styles
      5m 11s
    5. Styling basic layout components
      6m 19s
    6. Making the site layout responsive
      8m 58s
  5. 23m 18s
    1. Styling the default header
      6m 25s
    2. Hiding the site title and tagline
      5m 32s
    3. Adding an optional header image function
      5m 23s
    4. Placing the header image behind the site title
      5m 58s
  6. 40m 55s
    1. Setting up menus
      3m 12s
    2. Styling the menu
      7m 42s
    3. Using Superfish for accessible menus
      8m 0s
    4. Making the menu responsive
      7m 3s
    5. Creating a custom social media menu
      5m 51s
    6. Styling the menu with icons from Font Awesome
      9m 7s
  7. 18m 9s
    1. Adding the search form
      6m 27s
    2. Adding the search icon
      6m 55s
    3. Adding show/hide functionality to the search form with jQuery
      4m 47s
  8. 33m 20s
    1. Adding a widgetized area to the footer
      7m 10s
    2. Using the Monster widget plugin to test all widgets
      2m 11s
    3. Styling the footer
      3m 6s
    4. General widget styling
      5m 33s
    5. Adding custom styles to specific widgets
      7m 34s
    6. Using Masonry to make footer widgets responsive
      7m 46s
  9. 54m 49s
    1. Changing the Single Post Template content structure
      5m 54s
    2. Changing the output of meta elements
      7m 2s
    3. Styling the Single Post Template
      7m 57s
    4. Making post meta responsive
      6m 21s
    5. Styling blockquotes
      5m 39s
    6. Creating pull quotes and pull images
      5m 1s
    7. Working with image captions
      4m 27s
    8. Working with image galleries
      4m 57s
    9. Single-post navigation
      7m 31s
  10. 30m 23s
    1. Working with the comments template
      8m 42s
    2. Using Gravatars in comments
      2m 42s
    3. Styling comments
      7m 26s
    4. Highlighting post author comments
      3m 36s
    5. Styling the comment form and messages
      7m 57s
  11. 18m 43s
    1. How do featured images (post thumbnails) work?
      2m 57s
    2. Defining featured image sizes
      3m 30s
    3. Generating new featured images with a plugin
      1m 46s
    4. Adding featured images to a template
      5m 7s
    5. Styling the featured image
      5m 23s
  12. 1h 2m
    1. The index template hierarchy
      2m 21s
    2. Customizing and styling index templates
      10m 10s
    3. Displaying excerpts or full content on index pages
      3m 6s
    4. Adding a custom Read More link
      3m 48s
    5. Adding featured images
      4m 0s
    6. Creating custom pagination navigation
      6m 4s
    7. Highlighting Sticky Posts
      2m 55s
    8. Creating custom post format templates
      5m 30s
    9. Highlighting the most recent post in the index template
      7m 22s
    10. Embracing modular design
      2m 29s
    11. Working with archive.php
      5m 54s
    12. Customizing the search results and the 404 template
      8m 28s
  13. 9m 7s
    1. Styling pages
      3m 4s
    2. Creating custom page templates
      6m 3s
  14. 4m 30s
    1. Adding editor styles to match front-end styles
      4m 30s
  15. 2m 20s
    1. Further learning
      2m 20s

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