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mocha has always been very popular as a tracking tool, but with the rising interest in stereo 3D conversion, its rotoscoping capabilities have become a favorite player in that pipeline and sales have soared. In this course, Steve Wright covers the basics of operating mocha, as well as advanced tracking and rotoscoping techniques. The course also covers the mocha/Nuke stereo 3D production pipeline in detail.
In the real world of production, you'll have to deal with Interlaced Video, Non square pixels, 3:2 pulldowns and QuickTime movies. It's very important to get the New Project Settings correct for these cases. Otherwise, the resulting roto shapes or tracking data will not line up with your compositing or editing system. So let's take a look at how to deal with Interlaced Video. Let's go get a New Project. We don't have to save this project. We'll choose from my Lesson_01_Media, the Interlaced Video folder, and select the first frame, shark.
Notice that it goes from frame 21 to 30, and we'll click Open. Now, let's see how the interlaced footage will look if we do not de-interlace it. So without setting the Separate Fields, leaving that off, we'll say OK and see what happens with the footage. So I'll zoom in. There you can see all the interlaced filed lines and as I scrub through the clip, you can see the interlaced fields. Now, let's load it in again. This time we'll de-interlace it. We'll go up to File>New Project.
We don't need to save this. Choose the shark again, click Open. This time we'll set the Separate Fields from Off to Lower field first. For NTSC footage, you want the Lower field, for PAL, it's the Upper field. Notice that mocha has correctly guessed that this is an NTSC shot, and it did that by looking at the size of the frame: 720x480. Once it figured out that it's an NTSC clip, it knew the proper Pixel Aspect Ratio right here. So this time, we'll see it de-interlaced.
Notice I have left the Remove Pulldown off. This is not a 3:2 pulldown clip, this is an interlaced clip. We'll click OK. Mocha has already saved out a clip with the interlaced shark and we do not want to keep that, so we do want to overwrite it. So we'll click Yes. Now, let's take a look at our shark. We'll zoom in. As I scrub through the Timeline, you can see that all the interlaced field lines are gone. Furthermore, look down here on the Timeline; we have something new. It's on frame 4:L, as I step through the Timeline, 4:U, 5:L, 5:U, 6 Lower, 6 Upper, 7 Lower, 7 Upper.
So those are the Upper and Lower fields of the de-interlaced footage. The number of frames in the clip will be doubled because you have an upper and lower field for every frame in the clip. Now let's take a look at a 3:2 Pulldown example. We'll go up to File>New Project. We do not want to save this. We'll choose, this time we'll go to the Lesson_01_ Media and look for the Pulldown folder, and select Pulldown>Open.
I've made a 3:2 Pulldown version of our Lantern Boy clip. So let's see what a 3:2 Pulldown looks like. Notice I am leaving Separate Fields off. So we are going to see what it looks like when you don't fix it. We'll click OK, bring the boy in. As I scrub through the Timeline, you notice this frame looks okay. But, as I move through the Timeline, I get to a frame that's got interlacing in it. The next frame does but then it's clean; clean, clean, interlaced, interlaced, clean, clean. So with a 3:2 Pulldown, the clip has intermittent interlacing.
With Interlaced Video, every frame exhibits the interlacing. So let's see how we fix this. We'll reload this again; File>New Project, don't save this one. Choose the Pulldown again, say Open. This time we are going to set the Separate Fields to Lower field first, and Remove Pulldown, we set to 3:2 Pulldown.
This enables the pulldown feature. But, there's a second thing we have to set. We have to set the Cadence. So let's see what that's about. We'll click OK. Again, mocha has saved out the previous script which is, of course, incorrect. So we want to say, "Yes, I want to overwrite that one with this good one." So now we've enabled the 3:2 Pulldown, and then I scrub through it, I still find some interlacing. This is because we haven't set the Cadence. We set the Cadence down here on the Clip Tab and we go to the Interlaced Tab.
3:2 Pulldown is used to convert a 24 frame-per-second film to 30 frames per second video or 29.97. In order to stretch the 24 frames into 30, they pull down the shutter during telecine three times on some selected frames. The problem we have here is we need to set the Cadence, the synchronization of the 3:2 Pulldown in our clip must match the film. So we have to go through the Cadence list here, trying to find which of these is the right one? By default, it starts with AA. Clearly, that didn't fix it.
Let's try BB. Nope. Let's try BC. That looks promising. Oh! No, no. When you find the correct Cadence, you'll be able to find 5 consecutive frames that are clean. If you've got 5 clean frames, you've solved it. Let's try CD, ooh! Maybe this is it. No, darn. All right! Let's try the last one. This better be it. DD, and then we scrub. Ah, now, we have a clean clip.
Now, let's take a look at some of the special issues involved with QuickTime Movies. I am going to select the Track Tab again because this is our normal default setup. We'll go to the File>New Project. We don't want to save this. We'll choose from our Lesson_01_Media folder, this QuickTime Movie. Open that. Okay, first key issue: Notice the Frame Range is 0 to 49.
QuickTime Movies always start at frame 0. Not to worry. On the Advanced Tab, this Frame offset here means the Timeline will be numbered 1 to 50 instead of 0 to 49. Frame rate: the QuickTime Movie reports the frame rate and mocha just copies it in right here for you. The Pixel Aspect Ratio; mocha inspected the Frame Size and decided this was an NTSC clip which is correct, and put the Pixel Aspect Ratio for you here which is correct. Now, you can see we've left Separate Fields off because maybe this is interlaced, maybe it's not. It's a QuickTime Movie; it could be either.
So let's see, we'll leave it off, click OK and look at our clip. Oops! We can see right away we have Interlacing and we have it on every single frame. So this is not a 3:2 Pulldown, this is Interlaced Video. Let's try it again; File>New Project, don't Save, choose the QuickTime Movie again. We'll say Open. Again, Frame Range, Frame Rate, NTSC, Pixel Aspect Ratio.
This time, let's turn Separate Fields to Lower fields first. Remember, NTSC is Lower field, PAL is the Upper field. We do not want to remove 3:2 Pulldown, so we'll set that to off. I think mocha was remembering my previous project. We'll say OK, and again we do want to overwrite the old script, because that was no good. So we'll say Yes and now I'll zoom in a little bit. We scrub through it, and we have nice, clean de-interlaced footage and we have twice as many frames with the Upper and Lower down here in the Timeline.
So this is the proper setup for this QuickTime Movie. Now that we've seen how to deal with interlaced footage, let's take a look at the Color parameters setting on the New Project Advanced Tab.
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