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Using the appropriate workstation

From: Audio Mastering Techniques

Video: Using the appropriate workstation

If you've ever tried to export a number of songs from your normal digital audio workstation timeline, you know that what you get is a single large file instead of individual song files, like what we're used to on a CD. That's because you need a special editing workstation for making CDs that does what's know as PQ subcode editing. PQ subcodes control the track location and running time aspects of a CD, enable the CD player to know how many tracks are present, where they are, how long they are, and when to change from one track to another.

Using the appropriate workstation

If you've ever tried to export a number of songs from your normal digital audio workstation timeline, you know that what you get is a single large file instead of individual song files, like what we're used to on a CD. That's because you need a special editing workstation for making CDs that does what's know as PQ subcode editing. PQ subcodes control the track location and running time aspects of a CD, enable the CD player to know how many tracks are present, where they are, how long they are, and when to change from one track to another.

Editing software applications like Waveburner, Audio Architect, Peak, Wavelab, DSP-Quattro and Sound Forge, all have the ability to place these codes as needed. When the CD was first developed, it had 8 subcodes labeled P to W, and there were a lot of uses intended for them, they just never came to pass. Today the only subcodes used are P and Q, but these contain other information like ISRC and UPC codes and CD text, all of which we will cover in future movies.

Most PQ editors also allow PQ log to be printed out which is then sent with the master to the replicator, as a check to ensure that all the correct data and information has been provide. The ability to add a PQ code is essential in the process of creating a CD and only certain apps are capable of doing this. That said, an app with the PQ editor can give you much more power and precision than you ever thought possible on a CD.

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This video is part of

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Audio Mastering Techniques

56 video lessons · 10248 viewers

Bobby Owsinski
Author

 
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  1. 1m 39s
    1. Welcome
      1m 39s
  2. 7m 7s
    1. Introducing mastering
      1m 22s
    2. The history of audio mastering
      3m 30s
    3. Mastering professionally versus doing it yourself
      2m 15s
  3. 10m 10s
    1. Mixing with mastering in mind
      6m 41s
    2. Mastering session documentation
      53s
    3. Printing alternative mixes
      2m 36s
  4. 6m 21s
    1. Evaluating your listening environment
      1m 33s
    2. Beginning with the basic listening technique
      3m 19s
    3. Deciding between monitors and headphones
      1m 29s
  5. 18m 13s
    1. Overview of mastering tools
      22s
    2. Exploring the dynamic ranges of different music genres
      2m 40s
    3. Understanding compression
      3m 20s
    4. Understanding limiting
      1m 25s
    5. Understanding equalization (EQ)
      1m 44s
    6. Using a de-esser
      1m 14s
    7. Metering while mastering
      3m 57s
    8. Exploring the mastering signal path
      1m 11s
    9. Listening in your digital audio workstation (DAW) using the A/B method
      2m 20s
  6. 33m 10s
    1. Making a loud master
      3m 7s
    2. Compression tips and tricks
      2m 4s
    3. Achieving competitive level
      2m 2s
    4. Understanding the pitfalls of hypercompression
      2m 10s
    5. Balancing frequencies
      3m 20s
    6. Reducing sibilance with a de-esser
      2m 2s
    7. Inserting fades
      1m 37s
    8. Eliminating noise and distortion
      43s
    9. Using multiband limiting
      4m 23s
    10. Adjusting the stereo image
      3m 24s
    11. Bringing out specific elements in a mix
      8m 18s
  7. 8m 17s
    1. Using dither
      1m 40s
    2. Using the appropriate workstation
      1m 27s
    3. Adjusting the spreads
      1m 28s
    4. Using International Standard Recording Codes (ISRC)
      1m 14s
    5. Using Universal Product Codes (UPC)
      1m 10s
    6. Creating CD-text discs
      33s
    7. Delivering or receiving a DDP master
      45s
  8. 12m 44s
    1. Encoding using the MP3 format
      3m 43s
    2. Understanding MP3 metadata
      1m 44s
    3. Creating a great-sounding MP3
      2m 46s
    4. Generating a FLAC file
      1m 18s
    5. Submitting music to online stores and services
      48s
    6. Submitting music to online song databases
      2m 25s
  9. 17m 23s
    1. Understanding AAC, the iTunes file format
      2m 28s
    2. Mastering for iTunes tips and tricks
      1m 36s
    3. The Mastered for iTunes format
      1m 29s
    4. The Mastered for iTunes tool package
      54s
    5. Using the iTunes Plus tools: iTunes Droplet
      1m 51s
    6. Using the Mastered for iTunes Audio To WAVE Droplet
      49s
    7. Using the Mastered for iTunes AURoundTripAAC Audio Unit tool
      6m 48s
    8. Using The Mastered for iTunes tools Test Pressing Feature
      1m 28s
  10. 3m 30s
    1. Mastering for high resolution
      1m 36s
    2. Mastering for television
      1m 54s
  11. 1m 19s
    1. Delivering the master to the replicator
      28s
    2. Archiving the project
      51s
  12. 50s
    1. Next steps
      50s

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