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Audio Mastering Techniques
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Beginning with the basic listening technique


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Audio Mastering Techniques

with Bobby Owsinski

Video: Beginning with the basic listening technique

Regardless of what kind of monitors or room you have to work with there are some proven techniques that will yield some reasonable results even under the worst conditions. These are all dependent upon your ears, which are still the primary ingredient in mastering and not the gear. Listen to some CDs that you love before you start mastering. You want to listen to the highest quality program that you can get, so this is one time when the CD beats an MP3. Although a lossless medium like a FLAC file could work as well. Listen to some of your favorite songs that you know really well, and understand how these sound under variety of playback systems.
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  1. 1m 39s
    1. Welcome
      1m 39s
  2. 7m 7s
    1. Introducing mastering
      1m 22s
    2. The history of audio mastering
      3m 30s
    3. Mastering professionally versus doing it yourself
      2m 15s
  3. 10m 10s
    1. Mixing with mastering in mind
      6m 41s
    2. Mastering session documentation
      53s
    3. Printing alternative mixes
      2m 36s
  4. 6m 21s
    1. Evaluating your listening environment
      1m 33s
    2. Beginning with the basic listening technique
      3m 19s
    3. Deciding between monitors and headphones
      1m 29s
  5. 18m 13s
    1. Overview of mastering tools
      22s
    2. Exploring the dynamic ranges of different music genres
      2m 40s
    3. Understanding compression
      3m 20s
    4. Understanding limiting
      1m 25s
    5. Understanding equalization (EQ)
      1m 44s
    6. Using a de-esser
      1m 14s
    7. Metering while mastering
      3m 57s
    8. Exploring the mastering signal path
      1m 11s
    9. Listening in your digital audio workstation (DAW) using the A/B method
      2m 20s
  6. 33m 10s
    1. Making a loud master
      3m 7s
    2. Compression tips and tricks
      2m 4s
    3. Achieving competitive level
      2m 2s
    4. Understanding the pitfalls of hypercompression
      2m 10s
    5. Balancing frequencies
      3m 20s
    6. Reducing sibilance with a de-esser
      2m 2s
    7. Inserting fades
      1m 37s
    8. Eliminating noise and distortion
      43s
    9. Using multiband limiting
      4m 23s
    10. Adjusting the stereo image
      3m 24s
    11. Bringing out specific elements in a mix
      8m 18s
  7. 8m 17s
    1. Using dither
      1m 40s
    2. Using the appropriate workstation
      1m 27s
    3. Adjusting the spreads
      1m 28s
    4. Using International Standard Recording Codes (ISRC)
      1m 14s
    5. Using Universal Product Codes (UPC)
      1m 10s
    6. Creating CD-text discs
      33s
    7. Delivering or receiving a DDP master
      45s
  8. 12m 44s
    1. Encoding using the MP3 format
      3m 43s
    2. Understanding MP3 metadata
      1m 44s
    3. Creating a great-sounding MP3
      2m 46s
    4. Generating a FLAC file
      1m 18s
    5. Submitting music to online stores and services
      48s
    6. Submitting music to online song databases
      2m 25s
  9. 17m 23s
    1. Understanding AAC, the iTunes file format
      2m 28s
    2. Mastering for iTunes tips and tricks
      1m 36s
    3. The Mastered for iTunes format
      1m 29s
    4. The Mastered for iTunes tool package
      54s
    5. Using the iTunes Plus tools: iTunes Droplet
      1m 51s
    6. Using the Mastered for iTunes Audio To WAVE Droplet
      49s
    7. Using the Mastered for iTunes AURoundTripAAC Audio Unit tool
      6m 48s
    8. Using The Mastered for iTunes tools Test Pressing Feature
      1m 28s
  10. 3m 30s
    1. Mastering for high resolution
      1m 36s
    2. Mastering for television
      1m 54s
  11. 1m 19s
    1. Delivering the master to the replicator
      28s
    2. Archiving the project
      51s
  12. 50s
    1. Next steps
      50s

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Audio Mastering Techniques
2h 0m Appropriate for all Jan 23, 2013

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Mastering audio is the final stage in music production, where the final set of mixed songs are turned into a cohesive album through a variety of processes that make the music sound the best it can, wherever it's played. Join author and producer Bobby Owsinski in this course, as he teaches essential mastering concepts and techniques used by experienced audio engineers. Follow along as he works at Oasis Mastering, a real-world mastering facility, and learn how to apply these techniques to your home or studio setup and make your projects sound better than ever.

First, discover how to configure your monitoring setup, optimize your listening environment, and prepare and print alternative mixes that will allow you to make quick fixes during mastering. Bobby then reviews a selection of dedicated mastering tools that give you precise control over select signal parameters, from compressors to de-essers. He'll discuss the differences between mastering for CD, online distribution, and specifically for iTunes, and how to achieve the best results for each medium. The course wraps with lessons on mastering for high-resolution formats like Blu-ray, as well as delivering and archiving the master recording once the project is complete.

Topics include:
  • What is mastering?
  • Preparing your tracks for mastering
  • Deciding between monitors and headphones
  • Exploring the dynamic range of different music genres
  • Adjusting song balances
  • Compressing the tracks
  • Balancing frequency
  • Reducing sibilance with a de-esser
  • Inserting fades
  • Eliminating noise
  • Mastering CDs, MP3s, and AACs for iTunes
  • Archiving masters
Subjects:
Audio + Music DAWs Mixing Music Production Audio Plug-Ins Mastering
Software:
iTunes Pro Tools
Author:
Bobby Owsinski

Beginning with the basic listening technique

Regardless of what kind of monitors or room you have to work with there are some proven techniques that will yield some reasonable results even under the worst conditions. These are all dependent upon your ears, which are still the primary ingredient in mastering and not the gear. Listen to some CDs that you love before you start mastering. You want to listen to the highest quality program that you can get, so this is one time when the CD beats an MP3. Although a lossless medium like a FLAC file could work as well. Listen to some of your favorite songs that you know really well, and understand how these sound under variety of playback systems.

You can even import the songs into your digital audio workstation while you're mastering for direct comparison. Ideally, the reference songs will be in the same genre as the one you're mastering. This one point will save you from over- or under-EQing. If your mastering job doesn't sound similar to your reference song, then you're not finished yet. It doesn't have to sound exactly like it, but it has to sound in the ballpark. If the bottom end is thumping on your reference and your mastering is not, then you have to take another approach or even have the song remixed.

If on the other hand, your bottom is big and full and your reference song is not then you can be sure that you're going to have way too much bottom when you play the song on the system in the outside world. This one trick utilizing a reference song will help you more than any other. Establish two different listening levels, you need one level that you consider fairly loud where you can easily hear how the lower frequency instruments like the bass and drums sit with each other and another is set of lower listening levels somewhere near the point where you can hold a conversation while the music is playing.

Use these two listening levels only. Mark them down on your volume control, making out where the level is in software and do whatever you have to do to make these two levels repeatable. The levels are somewhat arbitrary, and that they depend upon your monitors in your environment, but the idea is that you want one level that's loud enough for you to gage low end, as your ears are less sensitive to low frequencies and another level that's quiet enough that you can hear the tonal balance. If you listen to varying levels, your reference point will be thrown off, and you'll never be sure exactly what you're listening to, which is why you keep it to two levels only.

Use two sets of speakers a large set and a small set. The only way that you can ever be sure how things really sound is if you have two different sets to reference against. If you have more than two sets of monitors available, limit your listening choices to only two during mastering, so you don't confuse yourself and end up chasing your tail. Even if the largest speaker system that you can afford is a two-way bookshelf speaker with a six-inch woofer, you should plan to have an even smaller set to reference against. Although not the best even a pair of computer speakers will do as a second reference set as long as you feed them from the same sources your large set.

If you attempt to master your own mix use a different set of speakers than what you mixed on. This is really important because if you use the same monitors, you'll only be compounding any frequency response problems that the speakers might have in the first place. So remember that the way you're listening is really important when it comes to mastering. Calibrate your ears by listening to something that you think sounds great first. Preferably, in the same genre as the project you'll be working on, then be sure to listen it only two levels on two different speaker systems during the process.

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