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Now let's have a look at some of the additional items that you can control with controlling text. To access some of these items, make sure you have your Inspector open on the Text tab and then go over to the section for more. Here you'll find a variety of other different parameters that we can control. The first parameter that we want to control is going to be the Borders & Rules. And the thing that we need to fix is here in our sidebar we can see where we have the word "Overview" and underneath of it there's a very faint horizontal rule. It's really hard to see because the color of the line is such that it's not contrasting well enough with the background color that we chose.
We can go ahead and fix by pulling down our Layout sidebar and selecting the Section Backpack layout. We'll then double-click on our Overview text to select it. And then over in our More tab, let's begin by changing the color of that line. We'll go ahead and click on the color chip and then on our Color window, we'll pull the slider all the way down to the bottom to turn the line black. Now we can see the horizontal rule much better. We'll go ahead and close our Colors window, and let's explore some of the other options that we have here for formatting this line.
The first option that we have is the pattern of the stroke of the line itself. We can choose to have no line whatsoever or we can choose to have either a dashed line or dotted line. I like having just a plain solid line, so I'm going to go ahead and reselect the Solid Line option. Underneath that, we can choose how we want the lines to appear around the paragraph. The first option here is to have the line appear above our line of text. The second option allows us to make that line appear below the line of text.
The third option makes a line appear both above and below. And of course, the fourth option encloses the paragraph entirely in the line on all four sides. For this particular treatment of text, I like simply having the underline there, so I'll go ahead and reselect the simple Underline. Next, we can control the thickness of the line by changing this point value here. If we increase the thickness, you'll that the line gets much darker and thicker. Then if we change that value down to a lower value, we can get the line to be nice and thin.
I like the value set to approximately 0.5, so it adds a nice design element to the text here and creates a nice separation, but it's not overpowering. Next we can control the Offset of the line. Now the Offset describes the spacing that's in between the text and the line itself. If we increase that offset, we can see that we can increase a little bit of extra space in between that text and open it up. Likewise, we can decrease the value to bring the line up closer to the text and even bring it all the way down so that the line touches right at the text.
I like having the offset of this to open up just a little bit more, so I'm going to set mine to a value of +2 and simply type that in and press Enter or Return on the keyboard to accept it. That's going to open up the spacing in here a little bit more but not so much that it becomes distracting. Let's go ahead and apply those changes now to all of the rest of our pages that are using this template. We'll click the Apply Changes button and we'll close up the layout sidebar and now when we look at our work, we can see that the sidebar has the horizontal rule applied to it.
Let's go ahead and click inside of one of our text fields over here on the right and select the entire first paragraph of text, so we can explore the next section, which is Background Fills. Background fills can be applied in one of two formats: either character or paragraph styles. I'm going to go ahead and check the box for Paragraph Styles and then change the color of that fill to maybe this nice orange. When I deselect the text, we can see that the entire paragraph of text, from start to finish, is highlighted in the color that we've chosen for that paragraph.
If I select an individual word or a couple of words inside and then check the box for Character and deselect, you can see that only those words or those characters are having the background fill applied to it. Let's go ahead and reselect both of those and uncheck the boxes for character fill and then select the entire paragraph again, and then uncheck the box for paragraph fill. The next option allows us to set the type of style that's going to follow the paragraph that we're currently working in.
So for instance, with the Following Paragraph Styles set to Same, if I simply type Return and begin typing, the new paragraph automatically has the same style applied to it as its preceding paragraph. I'll go ahead and delete that text and I'm going to change the Following Paragraph Style to something like Block Quote. Now when I hit Return and begin typing, we can see that the paragraph style of Block Quote has been applied to this new paragraph and the default setting returns to Same.
So if I hit Return again and keep typing, the new paragraph retains the settings for the Block Quote. I'm going to go ahead and press Command+Z on my keyboard to undo all of those changes. The next section here allows us here to control breaking of pages and how they're controlled when we have text that's going to flow from one page to another. With these options selected, we could choose to keep the lines of text together. So if we have a grouping of text here and we have to Keep Lines Together and we add a few extra line returns down here, as soon as we're ready to go to the next page, if we hit Return one more time, the entire paragraphs moves down.
If I delete one time, that entire paragraph moves back up, keeping all of those lines of text together. I'll delete those paragraph returns, reselect my text, and uncheck the Keep Lines Together. We can then choose to select a particular line of text and choose the option to keep with the following paragraph. So in this case, if I start hitting Return a few times, we'll notice that these lines of text hang together and all jump onto the new page at one time.
I'll hit Command+Z a few times to undo that. If we select the whole next paragraph and choose Paragraph Starts on a New Page, that new paragraph will automatically jump over to the new page, leaving us room to apply some additional content here inside of this section. I'll go ahead and uncheck that to move the paragraph back. The last option here allows us to prevent widowed and orphaned lines. Let's go a little setup here. I'm going to go ahead and select this last paragraph of text and uncheck the box for Prevent Widow and Orphan Lines.
Then I'm going to press Command+C on my keyboard to copy that paragraph. And at the end of that paragraph, I'm going to simply hit Return and paste two more copies of the paragraph in place. And then I'm going to scrub back to the first page, so we can see that all of this text is flowing from one page to the next. In our third paragraph down, right before the word "If" in "If you're prepared," I'm going to hit a line return right there as well so that we can break that into a new paragraph. Now I'm going to come up in front of the first paragraph that we copied and press Return two times.
And we can see that this paragraph here is wrapping so that one line of text is appearing here at the top of the page. If we select all of this text and we change the option to prevent widowed and orphaned lines then iBooks Author will keep all of the text on the one line rather than leaving just one line up here. Again, we can toggle it to see what happens and turn it back on to see that it goes away. So that's what Prevent Widow and Orphan Lines does.
It's very helpful when you have a lot of text laid out. I'm going to press Command+Z on my keyboard several times now to get back to the point where I have my text lined out. And the last time I hit Command+Z my Prevent Widow and Orphan line should be rechecked again. You can also select the default language for a particular paragraph, or for an entire document, right from here. By changing the language, you can set the spell checker and other special characters to be already set up for that particular language. The next section, Remove Hyphenation in Paragraphs, is on by default usually.
To see this in action, I'm going to go ahead and increase the zoom up to about 150% and then I'm going to scroll my page over to the right-hand side and scroll down a little bit so we can see this right-hand edge of all of our text very clearly. And then, when I have both paragraphs of text selected and I uncheck the box to Remove Hyphenation, we'll see that hyphens are automatically inserted into a few places within the document. Simply checking the box again makes the hyphenation go away. For removing ligatures, it's helpful to see this also zoomed in.
So at the end of my last paragraph, I'm just going to simply hit Return to start a new line. Then I'm going to change the font for the new line to Palatino. Ligatures do not appear for all fonts, but they do for certain fonts, such as Palatino. I'm going to type in two characters, just FI, and I'm going to ahead and zoom that in even further so we can really see what's going on here. I'm going to zoom in to about 300%, and then scroll down on the page and scroll over so that we can clearly see these two letters onscreen.
With those two letters selected, if I check the box for Remove Ligatures, you can see a very slight change that takes place. The bar on the F and the top of the I become separated. If we uncheck the box, you can see that the font is tying those two letters together, making a nice clean view of the font. This effect only appears between certain letters on certain fonts, so it's something that, as a part of your book, if you'd like to have it appear, you can leave it unchecked.
However, if you do want to have the separation, you can always check the box and see the separation. I'm going to go ahead and delete those characters. Hit Delete on my keyboard one more time to take me back to the previous paragraph. And I'm going to change my zoom back out to 75%. Now let's go ahead and look at Baseline Shift. To look at Baseline Shift, we can simply select any single character in our page and then adjust the Baseline Shift by moving that character up out of the normal flow of the text or back down.
Now where would you actually apply this? Well, I'm going to reset that back to zero. I'm going to come at the end of that line and hit Return and I'm going to give you a couple of examples. First of all, will be something like H2, which is the chemical symbol for water. If I go ahead and I select the 2, I can move the baseline for that character down and have it appear down lower than what the two characters here are. Likewise, if I typed in something like X2, I could then select the 2 and move the baseline up to have it appear higher on the list.
Now this is quite helpful when you're trying to write chemical formulas or you're trying to write math equations. But if you were trying to really write in an X squared, it would be much more effective to be able to use a superscript or if you're trying to write H2O, to use a subscript. So to demonstrate that, I'm just simply going to hit space and type those two things again: H2O, space, X2. Now to make the number 2 in H2O a subscript, I'll go ahead and select, I'll go up to the Format menu, go down to Font, and go over the Baseline, and now I can select Subscript to make H2O both change the font size and be an appropriately sized subscript.
Likewise for the superscript of X2, to make an exponent, I'll go ahead and select that, go up to the Format menu > Font and select Baseline > Superscript. That will make it an appropriately size X squared. So with Baseline Shift, you can manually control the baseline for individual objects if you need to, or you can use some of the predefined ones, such as Subscript and Superscript, and you can access those from the Format menu. I'll go ahead and select this line of text and delete it and hit Delete one more time to return back to my previous line of text.
Those of the some other ways that you can control the layout and the flow of text within your documents.
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