Easy-to-follow video tutorials help you learn software, creative, and business skills.Become a member

Arguments

From: Foundations of UX: Logic and Content

Video: Arguments

Statements and universality really come into An argument is not what we associate with the In its simplest form, the logical argument takes this shape. Through logic, we can use two or more statements to create a new statement.

Arguments

Statements and universality really come into play when you start creating arguments. An argument is not what we associate with the word in everyday life, a back-and-forth exchange of opinions. But instead, an argument is a presentation of a series of premises or statements that together form a conclusion. In its simplest form, the logical argument takes this shape. All cupcakes are baked goods. This dessert is a cupcake. Therefore, this dessert is a baked good.

Through logic, we can use two or more statements to create a new statement. Whether the new statement is true or false, depends on whether the premise statements are true. And whether the structure of our argument is logically valid. This is a classic argument known as a syllogism. It has a mathematical structure that looks like this. All A are B. C is an A. Therefore, C is a B. Knowing this, we can start judging the validity of arguments.

All cupcakes are baked goods. This dessert is a cupcake. Therefore, this dessert is a baked good. This is a true statement or logical conclusion, because it follows the syllogism structure. The premises are sound and structure is valid. If you flip the order of the premises, it becomes pretty obvious why. This dessert is a cupcake. All cupcakes are baked goods. Therefore, this dessert is a baked good. Now consider another argument. All cupcakes are desserts.

This donut is a desert. Therefore, this donut is a cupcake. This statement is not true, because the logical structure is incorrect. And the reason it is incorrect, is because we are making an inference from one particular to another. While both donuts and cupcakes belong in the dessert category, they are in separate subcategories that do not overlap. If we flip the order of the premises, you'll see just how ridiculous this statement really is. This donut is a dessert.

All cupcakes are desserts. Therefore, this donut is a cupcake. In this order, it's clear that donuts and cupcakes are two different groups of desserts that don't necessarily have anything else in common. This previous argument is untrue because it's logically invalid, but you can also make logically valid arguments that are untrue because the premises are untrue. All birds can fly. The penguin is a bird. Therefore, the penguin can fly. This argument is logically valid, but it's conclusion is false because the first premise; all birds can fly, is false.

It takes a property of the particular, flying and applies it to the universal. All birds. Bizarrely, this means you can get a factually accurate conclusion from this argument even though the first premise is false. All birds can fly. The eagle is a bird. Therefore, the eagle can fly. What we have here, is a false positive. This conclusion is true in spite of the false premise, because of a happy accident. Some birds can fly and the eagle falls into that subcategory.

Had the first premise been, all birds are made of cheese, the conclusion would be false in all cases. This syllogism is the most basic form of a logical argument and the simple example shows you just how powerful and how important logic is in communication. It also highlights a fundamental difference between humans and computers. A human will often accept a logically invalid argument based on fact as true, and will also often accept a logical conclusion from false premises.

Because she knows more about the situation, or is willing to extend her trust to the person presenting the argument. A computer on the other hand, will only accept logically valid arguments and will always find a logically invalid argument false, even if the conclusion is true. The human prioritizes context, the computer prioritizes formal structure. For now, we can conclude that knowing how to make logically valid arguments and understanding the value of factual statements, and universality.

Will help you, not only when speaking to people, but also when dealing with computers.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Foundations of UX: Logic and Content
Foundations of UX: Logic and Content

26 video lessons · 4840 viewers

Morten Rand-Hendriksen
Author

 

Start learning today

Get unlimited access to all courses for just $25/month.

Become a member
Sometimes @lynda teaches me how to use a program and sometimes Lynda.com changes my life forever. @JosefShutter
@lynda lynda.com is an absolute life saver when it comes to learning todays software. Definitely recommend it! #higherlearning @Michael_Caraway
@lynda The best thing online! Your database of courses is great! To the mark and very helpful. Thanks! @ru22more
Got to create something yesterday I never thought I could do. #thanks @lynda @Ngventurella
I really do love @lynda as a learning platform. Never stop learning and developing, it’s probably our greatest gift as a species! @soundslikedavid
@lynda just subscribed to lynda.com all I can say its brilliant join now trust me @ButchSamurai
@lynda is an awesome resource. The membership is priceless if you take advantage of it. @diabetic_techie
One of the best decision I made this year. Buy a 1yr subscription to @lynda @cybercaptive
guys lynda.com (@lynda) is the best. So far I’ve learned Java, principles of OO programming, and now learning about MS project @lucasmitchell
Signed back up to @lynda dot com. I’ve missed it!! Proper geeking out right now! #timetolearn #geek @JayGodbold
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.


Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ.

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.


Mark all as unwatched Cancel

Congratulations

You have completed Foundations of UX: Logic and Content.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.


OK
Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member?

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Get started

Already a member?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferencesfrom the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Are you sure you want to delete this note?

No

Your file was successfully uploaded.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.


Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

   
submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.