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Indicating quotations

From: Web Accessibility Principles

Video: Indicating quotations

>> The example page that we've been working on has a quotation from the Mayor of Wardscott on it. The proper HTML element for a quotation is the blockquote element. Since the default appearance of a blockquote is indented, it quickly became abused by web designers as a way to easily indent a block of text. Using a semantic element for presentational purposes in this way violates the concept of semantic markup. If we reserve the use of blockquotes for text that is truly a quotation, web devices can convey that information to their users.

Indicating quotations

>> The example page that we've been working on has a quotation from the Mayor of Wardscott on it. The proper HTML element for a quotation is the blockquote element. Since the default appearance of a blockquote is indented, it quickly became abused by web designers as a way to easily indent a block of text. Using a semantic element for presentational purposes in this way violates the concept of semantic markup. If we reserve the use of blockquotes for text that is truly a quotation, web devices can convey that information to their users.

If you're following along with the exercise files, open the file visitors.html from the 04_09 folder of the chapter four exercise files. In design view, scroll down to see the entire quote. It's the second paragraph on the page. Highlight over all of its text then go to the insert menu. Scroll down and select HTML. From that menu, select text objects. Finally, in this last menu, select blockquote.

As you can see, the text is now indented on both sides. As with the other elements that we've been working with, we can change this style to suit our design. Click on the new CSS rule button at the bottom of the CSS styles panel. Click on the tag option by selector type. From the Tag Select menu, choose blockquote. Keep this document only selected by the define in option and click okay. Let's make our quoted text bold. So select the Weight menu and choose bold.

Let's also change the font. On the Font menu at the top of the dialogue box, click on the arrow and scroll down and select Georgia, Times New Roman, Times Serif. As one other option, let's change the line height. Click on the line height box and type 1.8. Click on the arrow of the Value menu next to that box and scroll down to the bottom to select multiple. This will ensure that our line height value has no unit set so that it will work with multiple font sizes.

Click okay. You can see that the indented style of the blockquote still remains. We didn't override this in our CSS rule. We simply added more rules to it. We changed the font family, the weight and the line height. Another option you have with blockquotes is to add an attribute that specifies where the quotation came from. This is the cite attribute and its value is always a URL. This particular doesn't come from any other page, but let's look at how you would add the cite attribute to quotations that are from another source.

Before we can assign a cite attribute to the blockquote, we need to make sure that we have the entire blockquote tag selected. Look in the tag selector bar at the bottom of the document window. The tag that is currently highlighted is the P tag. This text was previously marked up as a paragraph. When we added the blockquote, it simply wrapped around that paragraph. This is perfectly valid HTML. You can have many paragraphs within a single blockquote. So we don't need to remove that paragraph, but do click on the tag immediately before it, the blockquote tag. With the entire blockquote element now selected, go to the tag inspector panel, click the arrow beside its name to open that panel.

This panel allows you to easily add attributes that are available for the selected HTML element. Click the plus sign by the general label. The only attribute listed is cite, because this is the only blockquote related attribute that exists. Click in the box next to cite. A text field will appear where you can type in a URL to another page on the web. Beside this text field are icons that allow you to either point or browse to a file that's on your local system as the source of the blockquote.

Again, since this quotation did not come from another source, we don't need to set anything here. But this is yet another piece of information that web devices can make available to their users. For instance, when JAWS encounters a blockquote, it announces that it is a blockquote and then says where the citation is from if you do set a cite attribute. Go ahead and close the tag inspector. So, we've seen that the blockquote element carries a lot of information that can be conveyed to difference devices and to different users. It shouldn't be used for purely presentational formatting, but instead only when there is quoted text that needs to be indicated.

Next we'll talk about how to add further information to your page using HTML lists.

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This video is part of

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Web Accessibility Principles

68 video lessons · 25810 viewers

Zoe Gillenwater
Author

 
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  1. 2m 0s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Using the exercise files
      57s
  2. 33m 15s
    1. What does accessibility mean?
      5m 51s
    2. How does accessibility help your users?
      3m 30s
    3. Experiencing a website via a screen reader
      5m 46s
    4. How does accessibility help you and your clients?
      3m 9s
    5. Overview of Section 508 standards
      5m 51s
    6. Overview of WCAG standards
      6m 4s
    7. Understanding consistency and semantic markup
      3m 4s
  3. 54m 31s
    1. Understanding screen readers and accessibility tools
      6m 12s
    2. Getting accessible browsers
      5m 41s
    3. Customizing Firefox for accessibility testing
      5m 53s
    4. Using custom accessibility toolbars
      5m 28s
    5. Using Fangs and the Color Contrast Analyzer
      5m 30s
    6. Accessibility tools to bookmark
      5m 53s
    7. Using automated accessibility checking tools
      4m 57s
    8. Setting up the JAWS screen reader on Windows
      6m 42s
    9. Using the VoiceOver screen reader on Mac OS X
      5m 52s
    10. Setting Dreamweaver accessibility preferences
      2m 23s
  4. 26m 12s
    1. Avoiding tables for layout
      3m 30s
    2. Using CSS for layout
      2m 40s
    3. Creating a fixed-width layout
      5m 51s
    4. Creating an elastic layout
      3m 51s
    5. Creating a liquid layout
      3m 4s
    6. Customizing a liquid layout
      7m 16s
  5. 1h 6m
    1. Specifying the language
      3m 43s
    2. Setting page titles
      2m 16s
    3. Setting headings and paragraphs
      9m 55s
    4. Styling headings
      9m 56s
    5. Hiding section headings from sighted users
      6m 41s
    6. Styling text for readability
      6m 41s
    7. Ensuring proper color contrast
      6m 36s
    8. Creating text emphasis
      4m 29s
    9. Indicating quotations
      4m 29s
    10. Creating basic lists
      4m 16s
    11. Styling lists
      7m 15s
  6. 1h 15m
    1. Using lists for navigation
      6m 45s
    2. Creating a horizontal navigation bar
      13m 25s
    3. Creating a vertical navigation bar
      11m 44s
    4. Adding skip navigation links
      12m 0s
    5. Hiding skip navigation links
      6m 17s
    6. Proper link text and title attributes
      6m 11s
    7. Opening new windows
      4m 28s
    8. Accessibility limitations of fly-out menus
      6m 30s
    9. Creating an accessible fly-out menu
      8m 38s
  7. 27m 55s
    1. Proper ALT text for navigation images
      4m 57s
    2. Proper ALT text for decorative images
      5m 19s
    3. Adding ALT text to an existing site
      6m 9s
    4. Adding ALT text to image maps
      5m 58s
    5. Describing complex graphics
      5m 32s
  8. 34m 1s
    1. Using tables for data
      3m 0s
    2. Creating header cells
      4m 5s
    3. Adding table captions and summaries
      9m 9s
    4. Styling tables
      5m 19s
    5. Applying header cells to complex tables
      6m 52s
    6. Adding id and headers attributes
      5m 36s
  9. 42m 7s
    1. Understanding form accessibility issues
      3m 7s
    2. Labeling form fields
      6m 9s
    3. Adding fieldsets and legends
      4m 42s
    4. Moving forms out of tables
      3m 44s
    5. Cleaning up a form's appearance
      4m 53s
    6. Aligning labels and fields using CSS
      9m 39s
    7. Indicating required fields
      6m 15s
    8. Dealing with CAPTCHA
      3m 38s
  10. 7m 29s
    1. The Text-Only technique
      3m 21s
    2. The Access Keys technique
      2m 35s
    3. The Tab Index technique
      1m 33s
  11. 18s
    1. Goodbye
      18s

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