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Adding id and headers attributes

From: Web Accessibility Principles

Video: Adding id and headers attributes

>> In the last movie we began marking up a complex table with better HTML to describe what each data cell was headed by. But since each of the data cells in the table are headed by three different cells, we really need to use the ID and headers attributes to further enhances its accessibility. If you're following along with the exercise files, open the page government.html in Dreamweaver. That's located in the 07_06 folder of the chapter seven exercise files. Click on the code button in the document tool bar.

Adding id and headers attributes

>> In the last movie we began marking up a complex table with better HTML to describe what each data cell was headed by. But since each of the data cells in the table are headed by three different cells, we really need to use the ID and headers attributes to further enhances its accessibility. If you're following along with the exercise files, open the page government.html in Dreamweaver. That's located in the 07_06 folder of the chapter seven exercise files. Click on the code button in the document tool bar.

Scroll down in code view until you get to the table that we're currently working on. It starts on line 86. Place your cursor inside your first TH tag with the text fiscal year inside of it. You can place your cursor immediately before the scope attribute. What we're going to do is give each table header cell an ID then in each of the data cells, we'll specify what ID's head that cell. So with your cursor in the first TH cell, type ID="year". You can give the ID attributes any value that you want, but you probably want to give them meaningful names so that it will be easier to identify the correct ID's for each of the data cells, but also make them short names because you're going to have to type them many times into the headers attributes of those data cells.

They don't have to be listed before the scope attribute of the TH cells, but it's a good idea to put them first because when you're adding the headers attributes to the data cells, it makes scrolling back up the table to glance at what the ID's you set earlier were easier since they'll all be in a row. Now place your cursor in the second TH cell and type ID="budget" and a space. In the third TH cell type ID="dollars" and a space.

And in the fourth header cell of the first row, type ID="percent" and a space. The next row also starts off with a TH cell. Click inside that TH cell immediately before the rowspan attribute and type ID="2006" and a space. Since this cell is a header cell, it needs an ID attribute set.

But it, too, has its own header, the fiscal year cell that we labeled above. So to identify that relationship we're going to use the headers attribute. Type in headers="year" and a space. This is telling the browser or other devices that the header for this particular year is the fiscal year cell with the ID of year. Now move on to the second TH cell in the second row. Click before the scope attribute and type ID="ad06" and a space.

This cell is also being headed by other cells, so it needs the headers attribute too. Type in headers="budget 2006" and a space. We've used two separate values separated by a space within the headers attribute because this cell is headed by two separate cells, the budget cell in the first row and the 2006 - 2007 cell in the same row.

You can include as many values as you need to inside of the headers attribute, each one separate by a space. The order that you write them is not important. Now let's move on to a regular TD cell. Click inside the first TD cell immediately before its closing bracket. Enter a space then headers="dollars 2006 ad05". Here we've specified that three cells are headers for this cell, the dollars cell, the 2006 cell and the ad06 cell.

So you can see that this provides a lot more detail of explicit information about how this cell is being headed than the scope attribute provides. Let's apply the headers attribute one more time to the final cell in the second row of our table. Click inside the opening TD tag, before its closing bracket and type space headers="percent 2006 ad06". This cell shares two of the same headers cells as the one above it, but its first header cell, percent, is different from the one above it.

Again, this is just providing very detailed explicit information about the relationships in the table. You can continue adding the ID and headers attributes to all subsequent rows until every cell is linked to the others that label it. Remember, you only have to use these attributes when you have a complicated table that you can't remake into a simpler version where scope can't directly tie each cell to its single row header and single column header. The HTML table elements and attributes that we've discussed in this chapter can turn what may have been an incomprehensible heap of words and numbers to a screen reader user into meaningful data that many devices and people can correctly interpret.

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This video is part of

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Web Accessibility Principles

68 video lessons · 25679 viewers

Zoe Gillenwater
Author

 
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  1. 2m 0s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Using the exercise files
      57s
  2. 33m 15s
    1. What does accessibility mean?
      5m 51s
    2. How does accessibility help your users?
      3m 30s
    3. Experiencing a website via a screen reader
      5m 46s
    4. How does accessibility help you and your clients?
      3m 9s
    5. Overview of Section 508 standards
      5m 51s
    6. Overview of WCAG standards
      6m 4s
    7. Understanding consistency and semantic markup
      3m 4s
  3. 54m 31s
    1. Understanding screen readers and accessibility tools
      6m 12s
    2. Getting accessible browsers
      5m 41s
    3. Customizing Firefox for accessibility testing
      5m 53s
    4. Using custom accessibility toolbars
      5m 28s
    5. Using Fangs and the Color Contrast Analyzer
      5m 30s
    6. Accessibility tools to bookmark
      5m 53s
    7. Using automated accessibility checking tools
      4m 57s
    8. Setting up the JAWS screen reader on Windows
      6m 42s
    9. Using the VoiceOver screen reader on Mac OS X
      5m 52s
    10. Setting Dreamweaver accessibility preferences
      2m 23s
  4. 26m 12s
    1. Avoiding tables for layout
      3m 30s
    2. Using CSS for layout
      2m 40s
    3. Creating a fixed-width layout
      5m 51s
    4. Creating an elastic layout
      3m 51s
    5. Creating a liquid layout
      3m 4s
    6. Customizing a liquid layout
      7m 16s
  5. 1h 6m
    1. Specifying the language
      3m 43s
    2. Setting page titles
      2m 16s
    3. Setting headings and paragraphs
      9m 55s
    4. Styling headings
      9m 56s
    5. Hiding section headings from sighted users
      6m 41s
    6. Styling text for readability
      6m 41s
    7. Ensuring proper color contrast
      6m 36s
    8. Creating text emphasis
      4m 29s
    9. Indicating quotations
      4m 29s
    10. Creating basic lists
      4m 16s
    11. Styling lists
      7m 15s
  6. 1h 15m
    1. Using lists for navigation
      6m 45s
    2. Creating a horizontal navigation bar
      13m 25s
    3. Creating a vertical navigation bar
      11m 44s
    4. Adding skip navigation links
      12m 0s
    5. Hiding skip navigation links
      6m 17s
    6. Proper link text and title attributes
      6m 11s
    7. Opening new windows
      4m 28s
    8. Accessibility limitations of fly-out menus
      6m 30s
    9. Creating an accessible fly-out menu
      8m 38s
  7. 27m 55s
    1. Proper ALT text for navigation images
      4m 57s
    2. Proper ALT text for decorative images
      5m 19s
    3. Adding ALT text to an existing site
      6m 9s
    4. Adding ALT text to image maps
      5m 58s
    5. Describing complex graphics
      5m 32s
  8. 34m 1s
    1. Using tables for data
      3m 0s
    2. Creating header cells
      4m 5s
    3. Adding table captions and summaries
      9m 9s
    4. Styling tables
      5m 19s
    5. Applying header cells to complex tables
      6m 52s
    6. Adding id and headers attributes
      5m 36s
  9. 42m 7s
    1. Understanding form accessibility issues
      3m 7s
    2. Labeling form fields
      6m 9s
    3. Adding fieldsets and legends
      4m 42s
    4. Moving forms out of tables
      3m 44s
    5. Cleaning up a form's appearance
      4m 53s
    6. Aligning labels and fields using CSS
      9m 39s
    7. Indicating required fields
      6m 15s
    8. Dealing with CAPTCHA
      3m 38s
  10. 7m 29s
    1. The Text-Only technique
      3m 21s
    2. The Access Keys technique
      2m 35s
    3. The Tab Index technique
      1m 33s
  11. 18s
    1. Goodbye
      18s

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