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First up, let's talk about Canon's EF and EF-S lens mounts since Canon's EOS line of cameras is a very popular choice right now for many indie and pro film makers. The EOS line includes DSLR cameras like the Canon 7D and 5D, as well as the C100, C300 and C500 video camera line. You can tell if you have an EF lens by the little red dot on the lens. That dot is there so you can line it up with the similar red dot on the camera mount, to help make sure you put the lens on correctly.
So if your camera has the little red dot on the mount, then you know that it can take an EF lens. And if your camera has both the red dot and the little white square next to the red dot,. then you know that your camera can take an EF or an EF-S lens,. The physical difference between the two is that the Canon EF-S lenses sit a little further back from the camera body when connected. And there's a little less space between the back of the lens and the camera sensor. So there's no real difference however. Between the quality of the images from these two different types of Canon lens mounts.
An EF mount lens will look just as good as an EF-S mount lens when you shoot. The only thing I think you may want to consider if choosing between a Canon EF and a Canon EF-S lens, is that EF-S lenses were specifically designed to work with cameras with APS-C sensors that have a 1.6 crop factor. So may not be compatible with some larger sensor cameras. So Canon EF-S lenses are less compatible if you upgrade in the future. However, the advantage of going with an EF-S mount lens is that they are generally cheaper than the Canon EF lenses, because that proximity to the sensor allows them to be more compact, and lightweight.
So, EF lens are more compatible, particularly with higher end cameras, but EF-S lenses are more affordable. So the real choice is cost versus compatibility with other cameras.
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