Start learning with our library of video tutorials taught by experts. Get started

Typography for Web Designers
Illustration by

Using different CSS for different kinds of links


From:

Typography for Web Designers

with Laura Franz

Video: Using different CSS for different kinds of links

In this lesson, we're going to make the inline links on our web page look different from the navigation links. You need the files biblio_ serif_difflinkstates.html and biblio_serif_difflinkstates. css from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script. Put a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder so the Chopin Script will continue to load properly. Open up the HTML file in the browser to see what we are working with.
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 6m 18s
    1. Welcome
      1m 9s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 57s
    3. Things to consider before starting this course
      3m 12s
  2. 41m 3s
    1. Understanding how good typography promotes reading
      2m 9s
    2. Understanding legibility
      4m 41s
    3. Understanding how fonts convey meaning
      5m 19s
    4. Choosing web-safe fonts to convey meaning
      6m 13s
    5. Using font size, case, style, letter spacing, weight, and color to convey meaning
      6m 22s
    6. Choosing web fonts to convey meaning
      6m 23s
    7. Downloading web fonts
      4m 9s
    8. Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
      5m 47s
  3. 38m 0s
    1. Choosing a web-safe font for use in text
      4m 13s
    2. Applying the web-safe font to the text and the heading
      3m 4s
    3. Setting a class for the resource titles in the text
      3m 45s
    4. Choosing a second web-safe font for the heading
      2m 42s
    5. Applying the second font to the heading
      2m 16s
    6. Choosing a web font from the Google Font API for use in text
      5m 44s
    7. Adding and applying the Google Font API syntax
      4m 29s
    8. Choosing a second web font from the Google Font API for the heading
      2m 56s
    9. Adding and applying the second font to the heading
      4m 52s
    10. Analyzing the fonts on some professional sites
      3m 59s
  4. 55m 31s
    1. Understanding how we read
      4m 34s
    2. Finding and applying a good font size and line height
      4m 50s
    3. Finding and applying a good line length
      8m 6s
    4. Understanding ems
      6m 17s
    5. Using ems to set font size
      6m 9s
    6. Using ems to set line length
      3m 40s
    7. Understanding how color affects readability
      3m 58s
    8. Improving a color palette by improving contrast
      5m 39s
    9. Improving a color palette by reducing optical vibration
      4m 59s
    10. Analyzing text readability on the professional sites
      7m 19s
  5. 1h 11m
    1. Understanding how we "chunk" visual elements
      3m 59s
    2. Developing a system of hierarchy
      2m 17s
    3. Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS
      7m 16s
    4. Developing a system to help chunk text for readers
      6m 1s
    5. Applying the system in the CSS
      4m 19s
    6. Changing an element by creating and applying a class
      5m 0s
    7. Using multiple columns to create hierarchy
      4m 12s
    8. Building a two-column system in HTML and CSS
      10m 56s
    9. Refining the horizontal space in a two-column layout
      6m 1s
    10. Adding rule lines to improve chunking
      5m 50s
    11. Adding emphasis within a heading
      4m 36s
    12. Analyzing the chunking on the professional sites
      11m 18s
  6. 17m 57s
    1. Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
      7m 3s
    2. Understanding how to create rhythm and tension
      6m 0s
    3. Applying typography skills when making design decisions
      4m 54s
  7. 55m 47s
    1. Designing typographic links for the traditional page
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a list of links to the traditional page
      8m 44s
    3. Describing the link states in CSS
      6m 30s
    4. Returning links to their original "unvisited" style
      2m 38s
    5. Using different CSS for different kinds of links
      7m 28s
    6. Using CSS notation to organize syntax
      5m 34s
    7. Choosing a background color or image
      4m 0s
    8. Applying a repeating background image
      2m 58s
    9. Shaping the traditional page layout
      6m 38s
    10. Analyzing the traditional typographic elements on the professional sites
      5m 23s
  8. 43m 0s
    1. Designing typographic links for the modernist page
      6m 47s
    2. Making a list of links run across the page
      2m 14s
    3. Adding and removing space between the navigation links
      6m 50s
    4. Styling the inline links on the modernist page
      5m 33s
    5. Choosing a background color or image for the modernist bibliography
      4m 4s
    6. Applying a no-repeat background image
      4m 13s
    7. Shaping the modernist page layout
      6m 58s
    8. Analyzing the modernist typographic elements on the professional sites
      6m 21s
  9. 52m 53s
    1. Fixing quotation marks and apostrophes
      6m 59s
    2. Fixing dashes
      6m 33s
    3. Working with lining figures (numbers) and acronyms
      9m 28s
    4. Fixing characters that don't look right
      8m 19s
    5. Hanging punctuation
      2m 54s
    6. Applying typographic accents
      2m 36s
    7. Vertically centering text
      5m 18s
    8. Creating drop caps
      5m 59s
    9. Analyzing the typographic details on the professional sites
      4m 47s
  10. 3m 9s
    1. Additional resources
      3m 9s

Watch this entire course now—plus get access to every course in the library. Each course includes high-quality videos taught by expert instructors.

Become a member
please wait ...
Typography for Web Designers
6h 25m Appropriate for all Jul 14, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Learn how to choose fonts for a web site and create beautiful, legible type. Author Laura Franz shares how to create designs that maximize readability (and keep visitors on the page) by paying attention to details in size, line-height, line length, alignment, color, vertical space, and more. Laura also demonstrates how to incorporate web fonts, style type with CSS, and pick fonts that work well together.

Topics include:
  • Understanding how good typography promotes reading
  • Choosing web-safe fonts
  • Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
  • Adding and applying the Google Fonts syntax
  • Finding and applying a good font size, line height, and line length
  • Improving a color palette by improving contrast and reducing optical vibration
  • Understanding how people mentally organize, or chunk, visual elements
  • Applying a system of hierarchy in HTML and CSS
  • Applying vertical spacing in CSS
  • Adding emphasis within a heading
  • Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
  • Adding a list of links
  • Creating drop caps
  • Fixing quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes
Subjects:
Typography Web Web Design Web Fonts Web Foundations
Software:
TextWrangler
Author:
Laura Franz

Using different CSS for different kinds of links

In this lesson, we're going to make the inline links on our web page look different from the navigation links. You need the files biblio_ serif_difflinkstates.html and biblio_serif_difflinkstates. css from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script. Put a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder so the Chopin Script will continue to load properly. Open up the HTML file in the browser to see what we are working with.

All the links are in place and look great, but I want to visually communicate that some of the links link to areas on the page and other links link to an external web site. So we are going to make links that go out to the external web sites look a little different on the hover. We are going to add a subtle color background instead of italicizing them like they do now. This will communicate that this is a different kind of link, a link to an external site, but we don't want all the links to change.

If all the links had a background color instead of turning italic on the hover, we would lose some of the elegance of the navigation list. Wouldn't it be great if we could tell the browser any links in this list should look one way and any links not in this list should look another way? We can. Open up the CSS. Here we have our link syntax. We are going to add a ul in front of it and that tells the browser use these link states for any links that are in an unordered list.

If we save the CSS and review the page in the browser, all of the links that are not in the unordered list, they revert to their default state. They are using the color that we set by the universal selector and they're underlined. So what we need to do now is restyle these inline links. We need to create link states for inline links. I copy and paste whenever I can. So I've just copied and pasted and now I am going to get rid of those ULs that I had added earlier.

And now we once again have the four states, love, hate, and let's style these so that they'll look the way we want our inline links to look. First in the a: hover, we don't want the style to be italic. So we are going to get rid of that, but we do want to have a background color. So we are going to add the line background-color and the color that I've picked for this is e8e6e3.

Second, we don't want to have the active link to be italic either, but we do want it to continue to have the background color. We are going to copy that and paste it. You notice I didn't make any changes to the original link or visited link, because those pretty much just have the link color in them and we are going to keep that the same. Excellent! Let's save this and review it in our browser. So now we can see that our original ul links are remaining italic and they have a background color.

We are going to take care of that in a second. Our new inline links have the background color and do not turn italic. Now why does this one have the background color, when we didn't add a background color to it? The reason is that the unordered list link is going to pull some of the styling from the original link state. Even though we did these first, this is the pure link state here and the ul link state is sort of a build off of it.

So what we need to do is we need to go back and get rid of that background color. In the styling for our unordered list or ul link states, on the hover, we are going to put in a background-color, but this time we are going to make it white. And we are going to do the same on the active. it's still going to pull that background color in from the other link state, but now here it says no, no, no, make it different. I want it white.

I've saved that and let's review it in our browser. And now when we'll roll over those, they are italic and there's no background color. Well, there is, but it's the same color as the background color of a page so we don't see it. And here we see the background color. Excellent! I want to scroll down and show you one last thing and that's our top links, our links to the top here. They also have a background color because they are not in the unordered list. At the same time, they are not a link to an external site.

So I want to get rid of that background color. Let's do that. In the CSS, you are going to add a class .top and you are also going to copy and paste the hover state for the links. And we are going to change our background color here to white as well. So when we look at this, what this says is wherever there is a link that has the class top associated with it, make it look like this, including having a white background.

We also need to do that for our active state. So we do our class top, we'll copy this, add that to our class here, and make this a white background. So now wherever we have the class top on the active state, make sure the background color is also white. I am going to save this and now we need to add that class in our HTML.

Here is the link to the top and it's in a paragraph. We can add the class right to the p tag and again we do not use the dot in the HTML, only in the CSS, and again, the class will end at the p tag. [00:06:342.60] Okay, I am copying and pasting as I go down the page. So let's save this and we'll review it in our browser.

Refresh and now when we roll over the top, it does not have the background color and the external links still do. Excellent! Sometimes we need subtle differences in links so they feel right on the page. Some links may need to be centered while others are left aligned. Some links might need a color background while others don't. The trick is to be willing to make multiple sets of link states. Even subtle differences should be attended to.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Typography for Web Designers.


Expand all | Collapse all
please wait ...
Q: Where can I learn more about graphic design?
A: Discover more about this topic by visiting graphic design on lynda.com.
 
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.
Upgrade now


Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ.

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

join now Upgrade now

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.


Mark all as unwatched Cancel

Congratulations

You have completed Typography for Web Designers.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.


OK
Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member?

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Get started

Already a member?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferencesfrom the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Are you sure you want to delete this note?

No

Notes cannot be added for locked videos.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.


Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

   
submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.