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Typography for Web Designers
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Describing the link states in CSS


From:

Typography for Web Designers

with Laura Franz

Video: Describing the link states in CSS

In this lesson, we're going to make the links in our traditional bibliography look the way we want them to. You need the files biblio_serif_ linkstates.html and biblio_serif_linkstates.css from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script. Drag a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder, so Chopin Script will continue to work correctly. View the HTML in your text editor.
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  1. 6m 18s
    1. Welcome
      1m 9s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 57s
    3. Things to consider before starting this course
      3m 12s
  2. 41m 3s
    1. Understanding how good typography promotes reading
      2m 9s
    2. Understanding legibility
      4m 41s
    3. Understanding how fonts convey meaning
      5m 19s
    4. Choosing web-safe fonts to convey meaning
      6m 13s
    5. Using font size, case, style, letter spacing, weight, and color to convey meaning
      6m 22s
    6. Choosing web fonts to convey meaning
      6m 23s
    7. Downloading web fonts
      4m 9s
    8. Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
      5m 47s
  3. 38m 0s
    1. Choosing a web-safe font for use in text
      4m 13s
    2. Applying the web-safe font to the text and the heading
      3m 4s
    3. Setting a class for the resource titles in the text
      3m 45s
    4. Choosing a second web-safe font for the heading
      2m 42s
    5. Applying the second font to the heading
      2m 16s
    6. Choosing a web font from the Google Font API for use in text
      5m 44s
    7. Adding and applying the Google Font API syntax
      4m 29s
    8. Choosing a second web font from the Google Font API for the heading
      2m 56s
    9. Adding and applying the second font to the heading
      4m 52s
    10. Analyzing the fonts on some professional sites
      3m 59s
  4. 55m 31s
    1. Understanding how we read
      4m 34s
    2. Finding and applying a good font size and line height
      4m 50s
    3. Finding and applying a good line length
      8m 6s
    4. Understanding ems
      6m 17s
    5. Using ems to set font size
      6m 9s
    6. Using ems to set line length
      3m 40s
    7. Understanding how color affects readability
      3m 58s
    8. Improving a color palette by improving contrast
      5m 39s
    9. Improving a color palette by reducing optical vibration
      4m 59s
    10. Analyzing text readability on the professional sites
      7m 19s
  5. 1h 11m
    1. Understanding how we "chunk" visual elements
      3m 59s
    2. Developing a system of hierarchy
      2m 17s
    3. Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS
      7m 16s
    4. Developing a system to help chunk text for readers
      6m 1s
    5. Applying the system in the CSS
      4m 19s
    6. Changing an element by creating and applying a class
      5m 0s
    7. Using multiple columns to create hierarchy
      4m 12s
    8. Building a two-column system in HTML and CSS
      10m 56s
    9. Refining the horizontal space in a two-column layout
      6m 1s
    10. Adding rule lines to improve chunking
      5m 50s
    11. Adding emphasis within a heading
      4m 36s
    12. Analyzing the chunking on the professional sites
      11m 18s
  6. 17m 57s
    1. Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
      7m 3s
    2. Understanding how to create rhythm and tension
      6m 0s
    3. Applying typography skills when making design decisions
      4m 54s
  7. 55m 47s
    1. Designing typographic links for the traditional page
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a list of links to the traditional page
      8m 44s
    3. Describing the link states in CSS
      6m 30s
    4. Returning links to their original "unvisited" style
      2m 38s
    5. Using different CSS for different kinds of links
      7m 28s
    6. Using CSS notation to organize syntax
      5m 34s
    7. Choosing a background color or image
      4m 0s
    8. Applying a repeating background image
      2m 58s
    9. Shaping the traditional page layout
      6m 38s
    10. Analyzing the traditional typographic elements on the professional sites
      5m 23s
  8. 43m 0s
    1. Designing typographic links for the modernist page
      6m 47s
    2. Making a list of links run across the page
      2m 14s
    3. Adding and removing space between the navigation links
      6m 50s
    4. Styling the inline links on the modernist page
      5m 33s
    5. Choosing a background color or image for the modernist bibliography
      4m 4s
    6. Applying a no-repeat background image
      4m 13s
    7. Shaping the modernist page layout
      6m 58s
    8. Analyzing the modernist typographic elements on the professional sites
      6m 21s
  9. 52m 53s
    1. Fixing quotation marks and apostrophes
      6m 59s
    2. Fixing dashes
      6m 33s
    3. Working with lining figures (numbers) and acronyms
      9m 28s
    4. Fixing characters that don't look right
      8m 19s
    5. Hanging punctuation
      2m 54s
    6. Applying typographic accents
      2m 36s
    7. Vertically centering text
      5m 18s
    8. Creating drop caps
      5m 59s
    9. Analyzing the typographic details on the professional sites
      4m 47s
  10. 3m 9s
    1. Additional resources
      3m 9s

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Typography for Web Designers
6h 25m Appropriate for all Jul 14, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Learn how to choose fonts for a web site and create beautiful, legible type. Author Laura Franz shares how to create designs that maximize readability (and keep visitors on the page) by paying attention to details in size, line-height, line length, alignment, color, vertical space, and more. Laura also demonstrates how to incorporate web fonts, style type with CSS, and pick fonts that work well together.

Topics include:
  • Understanding how good typography promotes reading
  • Choosing web-safe fonts
  • Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
  • Adding and applying the Google Fonts syntax
  • Finding and applying a good font size, line height, and line length
  • Improving a color palette by improving contrast and reducing optical vibration
  • Understanding how people mentally organize, or chunk, visual elements
  • Applying a system of hierarchy in HTML and CSS
  • Applying vertical spacing in CSS
  • Adding emphasis within a heading
  • Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
  • Adding a list of links
  • Creating drop caps
  • Fixing quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes
Subjects:
Typography Web Web Design Web Fonts Web Foundations
Software:
TextWrangler
Author:
Laura Franz

Describing the link states in CSS

In this lesson, we're going to make the links in our traditional bibliography look the way we want them to. You need the files biblio_serif_ linkstates.html and biblio_serif_linkstates.css from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script. Drag a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder, so Chopin Script will continue to work correctly. View the HTML in your text editor.

I want to show you that I have added the inline links in the text since our last lesson. You can see that here. I have also added some anchor links back to the top of the page. Here is the new anchor at the top of the page. I also moved one of the anchors from the previous lesson. I had originally had to put the choosing anchor above the start of the div, but I decided that it was a little bit too high. We could still see the bottom of the h1 when we followed that link.

So I've moved it down and now it sits just above the h2, like the rest of the anchors do. Now let's open this file up in our browser and we can see what we are working with. Our links are defaulting to the dark brown color we have set in our universal selector in the CSS. They are also all underlined. And the links in the nav list are using a default size and line height, so they're a little bit too big and too tight. We are going to style the links so they look the way we set them up in Lesson 1 of this chapter.

I will remind you what they look like. We're going to do this in the CSS. We will add the four states we need to work with. I will put that down at the bottom here with my unordered list. The four states are a:link and we will need our curly brackets, a:visited and our curly brackets, a:hover and our curly brackets, and a:active and our curly brackets.

We are going to be able to style what the link looks like, what it looks like once we've visited it, what it looks like when we hover over it, and what it looks like while we are in the process of clicking on it. These states should always be in this order. A good mnemonic to help you remember it is love, lv, hate, ha. Now let's style these. First, what we are going to do is we are going to look at the things that stay consistent across all four states. Because we don't have to style it every single time in all four states.

Some of the things are we want them to be centered. We want them to all have the same size and the same line height. So what we are going to do is instead of styling that four different times in all four states, we are going to style this in our list item, because remember our links are list items as well. So here in our list item, we can say align:center. Put out the text there, text- align: center, font-size: 15 pixels.

That's the same size as our font and line-height is 30 pixels. That's a little looser than the line height we are using in the text so it looks more like a list. Now what we can do is style the individual things that we need to style for each of our states. So for instance in our a:link, we want a text-decoration: none and we want to use the color red that we have picked up, and that is 8a0f0f.

We want the visit state to look almost the same. It's just going to be a bit darker. So what we can do is we can copy this from the a:link and paste that into visited and all I have to do is change the color. We are going to use 660000. We want the hover link to look almost the same as the a:link as well. We're just going to make it italic. So I can put that a:link syntax in here and all I have to do is also say font-style: italic.

Then finally we have active. We want the active state to be most like the hover state. We want it to continue to have the italic style but we want it to use the darker red. So what I'm going to do, so I am going to go ahead and copy the hover state into the active state and then just change that color. 660000. Now you will notice that each of the four states also uses the text-decoration: none and I didn't put that up under the list item and the reason is because the text- decoration: none works with the link state.

So even if I have to put them all four times I put those in with my link states. Now let's go ahead and save this and review it in the browser. Refresh and it looks like it's working except that my line height isn't working. So I am going to go back and take a look at that and see what I did. I forgot a semicolon. Excellent! It happens all the time. I will save that and go back into browser again. Better! That's exactly what I was hoping for. So my links are red.

When I roll-over them they are italic, when I click on them they turn that darker red, and if I follow this up I can see that I have visited that bottom link because it stayed the darker red. So we are going to be fine-tuning these links and as we test them the one problem we are going to have is that we are going to lose that original unvisited state of the links, because once they turn to visited we can't see them in their unvisited state anymore.

So is there a way to continue to see them in their unvisited state? And yes, there is and we are going to cover that in the next lesson.

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