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Changing an element by creating and applying a class

From: Typography for Web Designers

Video: Changing an element by creating and applying a class

In this lesson, we're going to fix the space above and below the author. This will help chunk the information about each resource. You need the bibliography_ serif_authorspace.html and bibliography_serif_authorspace. css files from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script that you created in Lesson 3 of this chapter. Remember to drag a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder so that Chopin Script will continue to load properly.

Changing an element by creating and applying a class

In this lesson, we're going to fix the space above and below the author. This will help chunk the information about each resource. You need the bibliography_ serif_authorspace.html and bibliography_serif_authorspace. css files from the Exercise folder. You also need the fonts folder with the web font files for Chopin Script that you created in Lesson 3 of this chapter. Remember to drag a copy of the fonts folder into your Exercise folder so that Chopin Script will continue to load properly.

Open up the HTML file and let's see what we have here. You can see that the carefully created vertical spacing system is in place, but the space below the author is too loose and the space above the author is a little too tight. Why is this happening? Well, it's because the author information and the descriptions about the resources are both defined by a P tag, and this means they have the same margins. A bottom margin of 20 pixels and no top margin. And we need them to have different margins, but unlike H tags we only have one P tag to work with.

Theoretically, we could change the author to another H tag like an H4, but the author isn't really a heading. It's text. We just want it to look different from the other text. So semantically it's better if we keep it as a P tag, but how do we change it? Well, we're going to create a class with the spacing we need and apply it to the entire paragraph. So let's start in our CSS. We're going to create a class called author. .author. Remember always put a dot when you're creating a class and I do my curly brackets there.

And let's see, the spacing we want on it and we're going to add a margin-bottom of 5 pixels. I know we want to add a little space to the top, but we're not going to do it yet and I'll show you why in a few minutes here. We're going to save our CSS file and review. And it didn't work. Well that's because we created the class, but we didn't apply in the HTML. So let's go back and do that. In our HTML file, we want to add the class to our authors.

Earlier in the course, I showed you how to use a span tag to span a class around words we wanted italicized. You can see it here we use titles around the title, The Elements of Typographic Style. But we want to affect the entire paragraph here, so we don't have to use a span tag. We can use the tag we're already using and add the class here, class="author". Again, I put that in quotation marks because I made up the name author and the browser needs to know what class to go find and use.

So while we're here, I'm going to go ahead and copy this and let's do all the authors in the first section. That will help us see whether or not the spacing is good. You'll also notice I didn't have to end the class since the class is associated with the p tag. It will end when the p tag is ended. Okay, now let's save this and review it in our browser and there we go. It tightened up a little. You can see that now. The space between the author and the text, between the author and the text, it's tighter than the spacing between the different sections there, between the different resources. Great! We also need to add a little bit of space above the authors' names and we're not going to add it to the author itself.

What we're going to do is add a little space below our h3 here. I'm going to show you why. If we scroll down-- and these look wonky because we didn't do all the authors yet-- but if we go down let's see on A List Apart Magazine, it does not have an author and it's too tight to the text underneath it. So what we're going to do is we're going to actually add the space just below our h3 and then that way it will work whether there is an author's name after the title or if there is not an author's name after the title.

So let's go and do that now. We need to be in our CSS, on our h3. We are going to add a margin-bottom of 2 pixels. Go ahead and save that and we can review it in our browser with a refresh and excellent. You'll see here there is a little bit more space between A List Apart Magazine and its description. I'm going to scroll all the way up to the top where authors look good. There we go, we got a good spacing here. Not too tight, not too loose. It's looking good.

What you're going to do is go through and add the class= author to all of the paragraphs containing the author information for the rest of this document and when you're done, your vertical spacing will be done for the serif bibliography.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Typography for Web Designers
Typography for Web Designers

74 video lessons · 13738 viewers

Laura Franz
Author

 
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  1. 6m 18s
    1. Welcome
      1m 9s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 57s
    3. Things to consider before starting this course
      3m 12s
  2. 41m 3s
    1. Understanding how good typography promotes reading
      2m 9s
    2. Understanding legibility
      4m 41s
    3. Understanding how fonts convey meaning
      5m 19s
    4. Choosing web-safe fonts to convey meaning
      6m 13s
    5. Using font size, case, style, letter spacing, weight, and color to convey meaning
      6m 22s
    6. Choosing web fonts to convey meaning
      6m 23s
    7. Downloading web fonts
      4m 9s
    8. Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
      5m 47s
  3. 38m 0s
    1. Choosing a web-safe font for use in text
      4m 13s
    2. Applying the web-safe font to the text and the heading
      3m 4s
    3. Setting a class for the resource titles in the text
      3m 45s
    4. Choosing a second web-safe font for the heading
      2m 42s
    5. Applying the second font to the heading
      2m 16s
    6. Choosing a web font from the Google Font API for use in text
      5m 44s
    7. Adding and applying the Google Font API syntax
      4m 29s
    8. Choosing a second web font from the Google Font API for the heading
      2m 56s
    9. Adding and applying the second font to the heading
      4m 52s
    10. Analyzing the fonts on some professional sites
      3m 59s
  4. 55m 31s
    1. Understanding how we read
      4m 34s
    2. Finding and applying a good font size and line height
      4m 50s
    3. Finding and applying a good line length
      8m 6s
    4. Understanding ems
      6m 17s
    5. Using ems to set font size
      6m 9s
    6. Using ems to set line length
      3m 40s
    7. Understanding how color affects readability
      3m 58s
    8. Improving a color palette by improving contrast
      5m 39s
    9. Improving a color palette by reducing optical vibration
      4m 59s
    10. Analyzing text readability on the professional sites
      7m 19s
  5. 1h 11m
    1. Understanding how we "chunk" visual elements
      3m 59s
    2. Developing a system of hierarchy
      2m 17s
    3. Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS
      7m 16s
    4. Developing a system to help chunk text for readers
      6m 1s
    5. Applying the system in the CSS
      4m 19s
    6. Changing an element by creating and applying a class
      5m 0s
    7. Using multiple columns to create hierarchy
      4m 12s
    8. Building a two-column system in HTML and CSS
      10m 56s
    9. Refining the horizontal space in a two-column layout
      6m 1s
    10. Adding rule lines to improve chunking
      5m 50s
    11. Adding emphasis within a heading
      4m 36s
    12. Analyzing the chunking on the professional sites
      11m 18s
  6. 17m 57s
    1. Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
      7m 3s
    2. Understanding how to create rhythm and tension
      6m 0s
    3. Applying typography skills when making design decisions
      4m 54s
  7. 55m 47s
    1. Designing typographic links for the traditional page
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a list of links to the traditional page
      8m 44s
    3. Describing the link states in CSS
      6m 30s
    4. Returning links to their original "unvisited" style
      2m 38s
    5. Using different CSS for different kinds of links
      7m 28s
    6. Using CSS notation to organize syntax
      5m 34s
    7. Choosing a background color or image
      4m 0s
    8. Applying a repeating background image
      2m 58s
    9. Shaping the traditional page layout
      6m 38s
    10. Analyzing the traditional typographic elements on the professional sites
      5m 23s
  8. 43m 0s
    1. Designing typographic links for the modernist page
      6m 47s
    2. Making a list of links run across the page
      2m 14s
    3. Adding and removing space between the navigation links
      6m 50s
    4. Styling the inline links on the modernist page
      5m 33s
    5. Choosing a background color or image for the modernist bibliography
      4m 4s
    6. Applying a no-repeat background image
      4m 13s
    7. Shaping the modernist page layout
      6m 58s
    8. Analyzing the modernist typographic elements on the professional sites
      6m 21s
  9. 52m 53s
    1. Fixing quotation marks and apostrophes
      6m 59s
    2. Fixing dashes
      6m 33s
    3. Working with lining figures (numbers) and acronyms
      9m 28s
    4. Fixing characters that don't look right
      8m 19s
    5. Hanging punctuation
      2m 54s
    6. Applying typographic accents
      2m 36s
    7. Vertically centering text
      5m 18s
    8. Creating drop caps
      5m 59s
    9. Analyzing the typographic details on the professional sites
      4m 47s
  10. 3m 9s
    1. Additional resources
      3m 9s

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