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Typography for Web Designers
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Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS


From:

Typography for Web Designers

with Laura Franz

Video: Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS

In this lesson we are going to apply our system of hierarchy to a bibliography with the serif font. You will need the files biblio_serif_hierarchy.html and biblio_serif_hierarchy.css from the Exercise folder. You'll also need to create a fonts folder containing the web font files for Chopin Script. You can get the Chopin Script files from fontsquirrel.com. If you're just joining us or if you'd like a refresher on how to download and organize Font Squirrel's web fonts, see Chapter 1, Lesson 7, Downloading web fonts, from earlier in this course.
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  1. 6m 18s
    1. Welcome
      1m 9s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 57s
    3. Things to consider before starting this course
      3m 12s
  2. 41m 3s
    1. Understanding how good typography promotes reading
      2m 9s
    2. Understanding legibility
      4m 41s
    3. Understanding how fonts convey meaning
      5m 19s
    4. Choosing web-safe fonts to convey meaning
      6m 13s
    5. Using font size, case, style, letter spacing, weight, and color to convey meaning
      6m 22s
    6. Choosing web fonts to convey meaning
      6m 23s
    7. Downloading web fonts
      4m 9s
    8. Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
      5m 47s
  3. 38m 0s
    1. Choosing a web-safe font for use in text
      4m 13s
    2. Applying the web-safe font to the text and the heading
      3m 4s
    3. Setting a class for the resource titles in the text
      3m 45s
    4. Choosing a second web-safe font for the heading
      2m 42s
    5. Applying the second font to the heading
      2m 16s
    6. Choosing a web font from the Google Font API for use in text
      5m 44s
    7. Adding and applying the Google Font API syntax
      4m 29s
    8. Choosing a second web font from the Google Font API for the heading
      2m 56s
    9. Adding and applying the second font to the heading
      4m 52s
    10. Analyzing the fonts on some professional sites
      3m 59s
  4. 55m 31s
    1. Understanding how we read
      4m 34s
    2. Finding and applying a good font size and line height
      4m 50s
    3. Finding and applying a good line length
      8m 6s
    4. Understanding ems
      6m 17s
    5. Using ems to set font size
      6m 9s
    6. Using ems to set line length
      3m 40s
    7. Understanding how color affects readability
      3m 58s
    8. Improving a color palette by improving contrast
      5m 39s
    9. Improving a color palette by reducing optical vibration
      4m 59s
    10. Analyzing text readability on the professional sites
      7m 19s
  5. 1h 11m
    1. Understanding how we "chunk" visual elements
      3m 59s
    2. Developing a system of hierarchy
      2m 17s
    3. Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS
      7m 16s
    4. Developing a system to help chunk text for readers
      6m 1s
    5. Applying the system in the CSS
      4m 19s
    6. Changing an element by creating and applying a class
      5m 0s
    7. Using multiple columns to create hierarchy
      4m 12s
    8. Building a two-column system in HTML and CSS
      10m 56s
    9. Refining the horizontal space in a two-column layout
      6m 1s
    10. Adding rule lines to improve chunking
      5m 50s
    11. Adding emphasis within a heading
      4m 36s
    12. Analyzing the chunking on the professional sites
      11m 18s
  6. 17m 57s
    1. Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
      7m 3s
    2. Understanding how to create rhythm and tension
      6m 0s
    3. Applying typography skills when making design decisions
      4m 54s
  7. 55m 47s
    1. Designing typographic links for the traditional page
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a list of links to the traditional page
      8m 44s
    3. Describing the link states in CSS
      6m 30s
    4. Returning links to their original "unvisited" style
      2m 38s
    5. Using different CSS for different kinds of links
      7m 28s
    6. Using CSS notation to organize syntax
      5m 34s
    7. Choosing a background color or image
      4m 0s
    8. Applying a repeating background image
      2m 58s
    9. Shaping the traditional page layout
      6m 38s
    10. Analyzing the traditional typographic elements on the professional sites
      5m 23s
  8. 43m 0s
    1. Designing typographic links for the modernist page
      6m 47s
    2. Making a list of links run across the page
      2m 14s
    3. Adding and removing space between the navigation links
      6m 50s
    4. Styling the inline links on the modernist page
      5m 33s
    5. Choosing a background color or image for the modernist bibliography
      4m 4s
    6. Applying a no-repeat background image
      4m 13s
    7. Shaping the modernist page layout
      6m 58s
    8. Analyzing the modernist typographic elements on the professional sites
      6m 21s
  9. 52m 53s
    1. Fixing quotation marks and apostrophes
      6m 59s
    2. Fixing dashes
      6m 33s
    3. Working with lining figures (numbers) and acronyms
      9m 28s
    4. Fixing characters that don't look right
      8m 19s
    5. Hanging punctuation
      2m 54s
    6. Applying typographic accents
      2m 36s
    7. Vertically centering text
      5m 18s
    8. Creating drop caps
      5m 59s
    9. Analyzing the typographic details on the professional sites
      4m 47s
  10. 3m 9s
    1. Additional resources
      3m 9s

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Typography for Web Designers
6h 25m Appropriate for all Jul 14, 2011

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Learn how to choose fonts for a web site and create beautiful, legible type. Author Laura Franz shares how to create designs that maximize readability (and keep visitors on the page) by paying attention to details in size, line-height, line length, alignment, color, vertical space, and more. Laura also demonstrates how to incorporate web fonts, style type with CSS, and pick fonts that work well together.

Topics include:
  • Understanding how good typography promotes reading
  • Choosing web-safe fonts
  • Applying web fonts in CSS with @font-face
  • Adding and applying the Google Fonts syntax
  • Finding and applying a good font size, line height, and line length
  • Improving a color palette by improving contrast and reducing optical vibration
  • Understanding how people mentally organize, or chunk, visual elements
  • Applying a system of hierarchy in HTML and CSS
  • Applying vertical spacing in CSS
  • Adding emphasis within a heading
  • Understanding classic and modernist typographic pages
  • Adding a list of links
  • Creating drop caps
  • Fixing quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes
Subjects:
Typography Web Web Design Web Fonts Web Foundations
Software:
TextWrangler
Author:
Laura Franz

Applying hierarchy in HTML and CSS

In this lesson we are going to apply our system of hierarchy to a bibliography with the serif font. You will need the files biblio_serif_hierarchy.html and biblio_serif_hierarchy.css from the Exercise folder. You'll also need to create a fonts folder containing the web font files for Chopin Script. You can get the Chopin Script files from fontsquirrel.com. If you're just joining us or if you'd like a refresher on how to download and organize Font Squirrel's web fonts, see Chapter 1, Lesson 7, Downloading web fonts, from earlier in this course.

Once you've created a fonts folder, keep a copy of it on your desktop. You will need to use it for the remainder of this course, but you will need to put a copy of it in the Exercise folder for this lesson for it to work. Open up the HTML file in the browser to see what we are working with. I already have it opened here. We have got our text and the color settings from our earlier lessons but we've got a lot more content on the page now.

The titles of the resources are still set in the Verdana Bold all caps. We will have to change those and the names of the sections in the main headings are just default text because we haven't set them as headings yet. Let's go in and do that now. Open up the HTML document in your text editor. There we can see the main headline, Typography Resources, the second headline, Choosing and Using Fonts, and our resource headline, The Elements of Typographic Style.

But we have a problem. The resource title is still using the h1 and it's no longer our main heading. Typography Resources is our main heading. We need to go in and change that. The easiest way to do this is using a Find and Replace function on your text editor. You can type in your h1 tag and change it your h3 tag because the titles are now your h3 and you can replace them all.

We will need to go back in and do that for the closing tags as well. You may be tempted to just leave all of your title resources as h1 and then go up and use the h2 for the main heading but don't do it. This is not semantically correct. Let me show you what happens to your page on browsers and devices that don't use CSS.

The hierarchy is out of whack. See how your resource titles are the strongest things on the page? They shouldn't be that way. It's not good. We want your text to work on all browsers and devices possible. You want it to work on future devices and with voice recognition software. You need it to have the right hierarchy in your HTML. That's why we changed the h1 tags to h3 tags. Now we need to go in add our h1 and h2 tags. Typography Resources is your main heading.

So we will wrap that in an h1 tag. Choosing and using fonts right here is a subheading. It's a section of the site. So we will wrap that in an h2 tag. We have a couple of more h2s down the page. What I like to do is copy and paste my tags. Let's scroll down. Here is Working with Text on the Page.

I can paste that in and I can even paste and add a slash to close it. I copy and paste whenever possible. It's quicker and it avoids errors. And For the Love of Type down here, it's our very last one. So we have all our tags set in our HTML. We are going to save this file and go over into our CSS file and now we are going to describe how those tags should look.

The h1 uses a web font, the Chopin Script. I have already put the @font-face syntax into the CSS file here and I've already told it to go into your fonts folder to access those font files. If you want to see how and why I did the syntax this way, see Chapter 1, Lesson 8, Applying Web Fonts in CSS with @font-face, from earlier in this course. Now let's style the headings.

Here was our previous h1, the Verdana, bold, uppercase letter spaced text. That's not our h1 anymore. It's our h2. The easiest way to change this is to just make that our h2. And let's go in and style our h1. h1 and our curly brackets. We are going to be using the font-family from our web font. So I am going to go up and I am going to copy that line and paste it down here and then I'm also going to build a font stack so, comma, Georgia, serif.

Then we are going to finish it off by giving it a font-size of 75 pixels. We are going to align in center. I am going to turn off the bold right because it's an h tag that's going to have an automatic bold there. We will give it a font-weight of normal. Our h2 was already done. Now we can go in and do our h3. I started to put the font family in here but we don't need to because it's set in the universal selector.

What we do need to do though is put in our font-size, 18 pixels. I am going to put in a line-height here of 20 pixels. Again, we are going to turn off our bold, font-weight: normal. We have this italicized. We can do a font- style:italic. That should do it. Typed a lot in here, let's see how it worked. Save this and we can go back and view it in our browser.

Refresh it and excellent! All our fonts are coming in just the way we want them to. So I scroll down. I can see that that h2 is really popping with the dark bold all caps, just the way we want it. But I am going to point out we do have a problem and it's the spacing, Everything is sort of floating on the page with wide bands of white space between them and this undermines the hard work we've done so far to create chunks of text with the headings. So we are going to have to attend to the spacing in the next lesson.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Typography for Web Designers.


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A: Discover more about this topic by visiting graphic design on lynda.com.
 
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