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Search is everywhere in SharePoint. You'll typically find the Search box up towards the top right of just about every page you see. Now if you have shifted the Ribbon into a different look, the Search box may disappear, in which case you just go back to the Browse version of the Ribbon, and you should see it pop right back up again. When you search for some content, the results that you see may depend on how your administrator has configured the SharePoint's server. In this case for example, I did a Search, and the results I'm seeing are just from this particular site.
That's the default behavior when you're working with SharePoint Foundation, the free version of SharePoint, but it can be configured to show otherwise. For example, on a different site that I have, Search is configured to search the entire SharePoint from every site and every sub-site. If you get a lot of results back, you'll find the ability to refine your results to the result type, so I just want to see for example, Word documents.
Going back to Any Result is fine. I can see things like the Author. I can filter down by when it was last modified, and if it has been tagged using a particular word or phrase. Although the Search Engine might Search enormous amount of content across many different SharePoint sites, you will only see the results you have permission to see. This is what is called Security Trimming. With the Search Results, you also have a couple of interesting options. This icon of the top right allows me to search this location from within Windows itself, but what will happen when I click it is it will add what's called the Search Connector to this machine, which means that using the Windows Search box itself.
I can stop typing in say the word SharePoint, and start getting a bunch of results from my SharePoint sites. I can see the address of all the sites here, certainly useful if you use Windows search a lot. Another option you have is this one, which is Alert Me, the ability to be notified by e-mail about significant changes to the results of the search. Again, in the typical SharePoint server environment, you also have the ability to switch that over and search people. In this case, I'm seeing no results.
That doesn't mean that I just haven't searched on the right name. If the people in my organization are filling out their profiles properly, I can search on words they might've used for previous projects or interests. In this case it's bringing back a couple of people, because the word SharePoint is mentioned in their profiles. Now SharePoint Search Engine is very impressive, particularly when it's been configured well. SharePoint can search not only its own internal content, but it can also search external network folders, file shares, exchange public folders.
That has to be configured by your administrator, but once it's done, you'll find SharePoint to be a very powerful Search Engine inside your organization, and it's one of the classic places that you are going to look when you can't remember exactly where you saved something. Because the results are Security Trimmed, if you do an All Site Search, it is going to tell you this is where this phrase occurs. You could then filter down by yourself as an author, and if you had a lot of results there, you could even filter down by the time changed.
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