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Writing UPDATE statements

From: SQL Server 2008 Essential Training

Video: Writing UPDATE statements

Well just about as often as inserting information you're going to need to update information too. Let say the example that I was looking at, I know that I've got a problem with one of these rows. This last row here a ProductCategoryID 55 should have had a ParentProductCategoryID of 1 instead of 2. So let's see how to go ahead and do a simple example like that. We will use the word UPDATE and we're going to pick the table name, which is in this case SalesLT.ProductCategory. And just as SELECT has a FROM and INSERT has INTO, UPDATE has a SET.

Writing UPDATE statements

Well just about as often as inserting information you're going to need to update information too. Let say the example that I was looking at, I know that I've got a problem with one of these rows. This last row here a ProductCategoryID 55 should have had a ParentProductCategoryID of 1 instead of 2. So let's see how to go ahead and do a simple example like that. We will use the word UPDATE and we're going to pick the table name, which is in this case SalesLT.ProductCategory. And just as SELECT has a FROM and INSERT has INTO, UPDATE has a SET.

We're going to SET. We want to say what the values that we want to change are. In this case it was actually ParentProductCategoryID. IntelliSense is smart enough to know that if we're working with the ProductCategory table these are the only options that we have. And then I can say and in this case I'm going to do quite a specific change SET ParentProductCategoryID equal to 1. But if I were to run this code right now it would update every single row in the ProductCategory table and set back column to one, which is certainly not what we want.

So when you're doing an UPDATE, you tie a WHERE clause to it. Exactly like a SELECT statement. In fact more important than when you're doing a SELECT statement. So I want to say well, WHERE? Under what conditions do I want to do this? Again the example that I shown was that we had an incorrect one right at the end here, which was ProductCategoryID equal to 55. Now I could use any of the same WHERE clauses that I used in the select statement but that's the easy one. So I'll say WHERE ProductCategoryID equal to 55 and let's execute that.

One row affected. Well right now just like doing the INSERT the UPDATE doesn't tell you anything about what it did. It can but not this using a plain old update statement like this, and this would be something that we could theoretically execute again and again and again because it's just going to do the same thing. Not that I recommend it, but it should work and now if I go and take a look at that ProductCategory table we should find that yes, indeed the ParentProductCategoryID has been set to 1. But do bear in mind that whatever you put in the WHERE statement, whether it's a range or whether you miss it out entirely, if you had retrieved multiple values, if you put that WHERE in the select, you would update multiple values if that's in an UPDATE.

Now what about if I wanted to update multiple columns in that one row? Well that's pretty easy. So I just have that after the SET. We're setting the first column here ParentProductCategoryID equal to 1, Name equal to, for example, Commuter Bikes and we just execute that. One row affected. Now this is the most you're going to get right now of the information about what actually happened.

Obviously you can do a little bit more than that. Let's say for example I update a different table. I'm going to update SalesLT.Product and I'm going to set the list price. Let's say we've had a conversation, which is we want to increase our prices by two dollars where our prices are less than 50. Well I'm going to say SET ListPrice equal to. Now how do I do this? Well very easy. I just say ListPrice equal to whatever ListPrice is +2 WHERE ListPrice < 50. Execute and we see on this 49 rows affected. Your number may be slightly different if you're following along.

Now if you're constructing an UPDATE statement and you again a little nervous about how many rows you might affect, do bear mind that the WHERE clause is what you want to look at and before you run your UPDATE statement you could, if you're worried, about it just say SELECT *FROM SalesLT.Product, keeping the same WHERE clause, and figure out well how many is that going to actually change? In this case it is telling me 49 rows. Now I might have had a slightly different result because I've already executed my update but this would give you the verification of the update.

It's going to update as many things as you expect. Like everything else in SQL Server you can get a little deeper than this. I recommend that you check out some of the available options that you will see for the UPDATE statement on SQL Server Books Online but that's the core of how to do an UPDATE statement.

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SQL Server 2008 Essential Training

74 video lessons · 36355 viewers

Simon Allardice
Author

 
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  1. 2m 21s
    1. Welcome
      1m 19s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 2s
  2. 17m 58s
    1. SQL Server core concepts
      9m 4s
    2. SQL Server editions
      3m 8s
    3. Applications included with SQL Server
      5m 46s
  3. 26m 1s
    1. Preparing for installation
      3m 44s
    2. Creating service accounts
      2m 33s
    3. Installing SQL Server
      11m 42s
    4. Post-installation checks
      3m 9s
    5. Installing sample databases
      4m 53s
  4. 13m 35s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Management Studio
      8m 7s
    2. Introduction to SQL Server Books Online
      3m 6s
    3. SQL Server system databases
      2m 22s
  5. 1h 26m
    1. Planning your database
      9m 39s
    2. Creating a SQL Server database
      4m 7s
    3. Creating tables
      7m 51s
    4. Data types in SQL Server
      12m 25s
    5. Defining keys
      8m 9s
    6. Creating default values
      4m 39s
    7. Creating check constraints
      2m 25s
    8. Creating unique constraints
      4m 34s
    9. Introduction to relationships and foreign keys
      9m 51s
    10. Creating relationships in SQL Server Management Studio
      8m 14s
    11. Database normalization
      11m 47s
    12. Creating computed columns
      3m 10s
  6. 23m 11s
    1. Using the SQL Server Import and Export Wizard
      3m 58s
    2. Importing Excel files into SQL Server
      6m 11s
    3. Importing CSV files into SQL Server
      5m 27s
    4. Importing Access databases into SQL Server
      7m 35s
  7. 55m 29s
    1. Introduction to Transact-SQL
      3m 43s
    2. Using SELECT statements
      7m 16s
    3. Changing the default database
      2m 21s
    4. Creating conditions in SQL
      8m 10s
    5. Sorting your output
      3m 23s
    6. Using aggregate functions
      7m 12s
    7. Finding unique values
      2m 14s
    8. Joining multiple tables together
      8m 0s
    9. Using subqueries
      9m 33s
    10. Viewing execution plans
      3m 37s
  8. 19m 36s
    1. Writing INSERT statements
      5m 47s
    2. Writing UPDATE statements
      4m 38s
    3. Writing DELETE statements
      2m 54s
    4. Using the OUTPUT clause to return inserted keys and GUIDs
      6m 17s
  9. 32m 52s
    1. Introduction to SQL functions
      6m 26s
    2. Using SQL configuration functions
      2m 14s
    3. Using string functions
      7m 26s
    4. Using date functions
      6m 27s
    5. Creating user-defined functions
      10m 19s
  10. 28m 46s
    1. Introduction to stored procedures
      4m 23s
    2. Creating stored procedures
      11m 23s
    3. Introducing transactions
      4m 23s
    4. Creating transactions
      8m 37s
  11. 16m 39s
    1. Understanding and creating indexes
      6m 32s
    2. Monitoring and rebuilding indexes
      6m 0s
    3. Monitoring database size and integrity
      4m 7s
  12. 11m 41s
    1. Creating backups
      4m 21s
    2. Creating differential backups and using backup compression
      3m 40s
    3. Restoring databases
      3m 40s
  13. 17m 40s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server security and permissions
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a Windows user to the database
      5m 7s
    3. Creating SQL Server logins and switching authentication modes
      6m 39s
  14. 36m 41s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Reporting Services
      2m 52s
    2. Connecting to the Report Manager
      4m 29s
    3. Using Report Builder
      12m 4s
    4. Formatting values in reports
      4m 17s
    5. Adding indicators to reports
      5m 11s
    6. Adding charts to reports
      3m 54s
    7. Working with report security
      3m 54s
  15. 24m 41s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS)
      1m 57s
    2. Using Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS)
      6m 59s
    3. Creating and executing a simple SSIS package
      7m 35s
    4. Importing packages into SQL Server Management Studio
      3m 21s
    5. Scheduling jobs with SQL Server Agent
      4m 49s
  16. 31s
    1. Goodbye
      31s

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