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Introduction to stored procedures

From: SQL Server 2008 Essential Training

Video: Introduction to stored procedures

All these functions that we have are great and they're very useful and you'll use them all the time, but you probably won't end up writing a lot of them. However, spend any time with SQL Server and you will write stored procedures. A stored procedure is simply a chunk of SQL wrapped up, given a name, and then stored in the database. It can then be executed multiple times from SQL Server Management Studio, called from an application. It's available to anyone who can get to the database.

Introduction to stored procedures

All these functions that we have are great and they're very useful and you'll use them all the time, but you probably won't end up writing a lot of them. However, spend any time with SQL Server and you will write stored procedures. A stored procedure is simply a chunk of SQL wrapped up, given a name, and then stored in the database. It can then be executed multiple times from SQL Server Management Studio, called from an application. It's available to anyone who can get to the database.

And these will be the main way that you reuse SQL. Talk to developers and database administrators and they'll tell you that almost all of the SQL they write is intended for a stored procedure. Now we've written a lot of SQL in the past few hours, but if I'd wanted to save and reuse any of this I simply would have just have the option to go to my File menu and save this as a text file on my desktop. Well, that's fine for some personal learning and testing. But when you write some more complex SQL that you're happy with and you want to reuse it, you want to wrap it up in a stored procedure so you can use it later.

Like there are lots of built-in functions, there are hundreds of stored procedures already in SQL Server. If I expand any of the databases here, even the AdventureWorksLT, open up Programmability, this is where we saw our functions earlier. We also have stored procedures, and if I expand the System Stored Procedures here I see just quite a ridiculous amount of stored procedures, There is hundreds of them. Having said that, what you'll find is that many of these are intended for advanced administration tasks.

Working with Active Directory policy management, logging, optimizing your indexes and your partitions, and it's very common that that'll begin with Sys for sys.sp_, meaning stored procedure of something. I'll find in some of these test databases, there are also a couple of user-defined stored procedures, which you'll often see with USP at the start of them. There is couple of them in AdventureWorks Light. There is a few more if you look at the larger AdventureWorks examples.

Now there are similarities between creating a stored procedure and creating a function. They both need a name, and they can be defined with parameters. They can return values. Well, that does sound very similar to a function, but there are some substantial differences really about what they're intended for. Functions are typically designed to return a scalar value and they're SELECT only. they're not allowed to change anything. If you write a function, you cannot put an INSERT, an UPDATE or DELETE inside it.

It's designed to be a quick way of returning a value. Functions themselves are designed to be used in-line as part of other SQL statements. So, while a function can be used inside of an INSERT or an UPDATE, it can't itself do an INSERT or an UPDATE. Stored procedures on the other hand are much bigger in scale and much bigger in scope. And they are executed directly. There is in E-X-E-C, EXEC statement. You execute the entire stored procedure.

Stored procedures can do multiple things including inserting and updating and deleting. Stored procedures themselves can use functions, but functions won't be using stored procedures. Stored procedures can do multiple things at the same time. They can contain batches of SQL. Particularly useful if you want to do say an insert to several different tables at the same time. They're great for that. And after just taking your SQL and wrapping up and saving it as a stored procedure we can add parameters, variables, error handling, even flow control, having basic control in the case of IF statements.

It's very much like turning it into a mini program. And in fact I've worked in several places, which did not allow developers to write their own INSERTs, UPDATEs, DELETEs, even SELECT statements in their programs. They had to execute stored procedures. One of the benefits of that is all the SQL stays in the database and can be controlled and hopefully optimized by the database administrator. But let's see how to do one.

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This video is part of

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SQL Server 2008 Essential Training

74 video lessons · 36316 viewers

Simon Allardice
Author

 
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  1. 2m 21s
    1. Welcome
      1m 19s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 2s
  2. 17m 58s
    1. SQL Server core concepts
      9m 4s
    2. SQL Server editions
      3m 8s
    3. Applications included with SQL Server
      5m 46s
  3. 26m 1s
    1. Preparing for installation
      3m 44s
    2. Creating service accounts
      2m 33s
    3. Installing SQL Server
      11m 42s
    4. Post-installation checks
      3m 9s
    5. Installing sample databases
      4m 53s
  4. 13m 35s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Management Studio
      8m 7s
    2. Introduction to SQL Server Books Online
      3m 6s
    3. SQL Server system databases
      2m 22s
  5. 1h 26m
    1. Planning your database
      9m 39s
    2. Creating a SQL Server database
      4m 7s
    3. Creating tables
      7m 51s
    4. Data types in SQL Server
      12m 25s
    5. Defining keys
      8m 9s
    6. Creating default values
      4m 39s
    7. Creating check constraints
      2m 25s
    8. Creating unique constraints
      4m 34s
    9. Introduction to relationships and foreign keys
      9m 51s
    10. Creating relationships in SQL Server Management Studio
      8m 14s
    11. Database normalization
      11m 47s
    12. Creating computed columns
      3m 10s
  6. 23m 11s
    1. Using the SQL Server Import and Export Wizard
      3m 58s
    2. Importing Excel files into SQL Server
      6m 11s
    3. Importing CSV files into SQL Server
      5m 27s
    4. Importing Access databases into SQL Server
      7m 35s
  7. 55m 29s
    1. Introduction to Transact-SQL
      3m 43s
    2. Using SELECT statements
      7m 16s
    3. Changing the default database
      2m 21s
    4. Creating conditions in SQL
      8m 10s
    5. Sorting your output
      3m 23s
    6. Using aggregate functions
      7m 12s
    7. Finding unique values
      2m 14s
    8. Joining multiple tables together
      8m 0s
    9. Using subqueries
      9m 33s
    10. Viewing execution plans
      3m 37s
  8. 19m 36s
    1. Writing INSERT statements
      5m 47s
    2. Writing UPDATE statements
      4m 38s
    3. Writing DELETE statements
      2m 54s
    4. Using the OUTPUT clause to return inserted keys and GUIDs
      6m 17s
  9. 32m 52s
    1. Introduction to SQL functions
      6m 26s
    2. Using SQL configuration functions
      2m 14s
    3. Using string functions
      7m 26s
    4. Using date functions
      6m 27s
    5. Creating user-defined functions
      10m 19s
  10. 28m 46s
    1. Introduction to stored procedures
      4m 23s
    2. Creating stored procedures
      11m 23s
    3. Introducing transactions
      4m 23s
    4. Creating transactions
      8m 37s
  11. 16m 39s
    1. Understanding and creating indexes
      6m 32s
    2. Monitoring and rebuilding indexes
      6m 0s
    3. Monitoring database size and integrity
      4m 7s
  12. 11m 41s
    1. Creating backups
      4m 21s
    2. Creating differential backups and using backup compression
      3m 40s
    3. Restoring databases
      3m 40s
  13. 17m 40s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server security and permissions
      5m 54s
    2. Adding a Windows user to the database
      5m 7s
    3. Creating SQL Server logins and switching authentication modes
      6m 39s
  14. 36m 41s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Reporting Services
      2m 52s
    2. Connecting to the Report Manager
      4m 29s
    3. Using Report Builder
      12m 4s
    4. Formatting values in reports
      4m 17s
    5. Adding indicators to reports
      5m 11s
    6. Adding charts to reports
      3m 54s
    7. Working with report security
      3m 54s
  15. 24m 41s
    1. Introduction to SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS)
      1m 57s
    2. Using Business Intelligence Development Studio (BIDS)
      6m 59s
    3. Creating and executing a simple SSIS package
      7m 35s
    4. Importing packages into SQL Server Management Studio
      3m 21s
    5. Scheduling jobs with SQL Server Agent
      4m 49s
  16. 31s
    1. Goodbye
      31s

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