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Comparing triggers, functions, and procedures


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SQL Server: Triggers, Stored Procedures, and Functions

with Martin Guidry

Video: Comparing triggers, functions, and procedures

Before we get into creating triggers, functions, and stored procedures let's talk about the similarities and differences. First, the similarities. All of these are database objects containing code that will be executed as a single unit. These things are similar to what other development platforms might call a method, a subroutine, or a module. Some other platforms also use the term procedure and function, similar to the way SQL Server uses those words. In SQL Server, triggers, functions, and stored procedures are typically written in a T-SQL, but they can also be implemented in any of the .NET languages like C# or VB.NET.
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  1. 2m 15s
    1. Welcome
      51s
    2. What you should know
      51s
    3. Using the exercise files
      33s
  2. 11m 1s
    1. Comparing triggers, functions, and procedures
      3m 25s
    2. Why use a stored procedure?
      4m 59s
    3. Why use functions?
      1m 27s
    4. Why use triggers?
      1m 10s
  3. 6m 2s
    1. Configuring your environment
      4m 53s
    2. Downloading and installing a sample database
      1m 9s
  4. 26m 25s
    1. Creating a stored procedure
      2m 46s
    2. Modifying a stored procedure
      2m 34s
    3. Returning data using data sets
      3m 45s
    4. Using input and output parameters
      5m 24s
    5. Returning data using cursors
      3m 45s
    6. Using security and permissions
      5m 24s
    7. Using transactions
      2m 47s
  5. 11m 56s
    1. Creating a user-defined function
      4m 59s
    2. Exploring single-value functions
      4m 18s
    3. Exploring table value functions
      2m 39s
  6. 9m 31s
    1. Using "after" triggers
      3m 47s
    2. Using "instead of" triggers
      2m 9s
    3. Using nested triggers
      1m 38s
    4. Using database-level triggers
      1m 57s
  7. 12m 43s
    1. Exploring a real-world INSERT procedure
      5m 32s
    2. Exploring a real-world UPDATE procedure
      3m 13s
    3. Implementing logging on DELETE
      3m 58s
  8. 19m 38s
    1. Understanding the Common Language Runtime (CLR) and the .NET framework
      1m 52s
    2. Using CLR with SQL Server 2012
      4m 11s
    3. Writing stored procedures with C# .NET
      5m 51s
    4. Writing functions with .NET
      5m 7s
    5. Choosing between T-SQL vs. CLR
      2m 37s
  9. 11m 35s
    1. Creating a basic web form and connecting to a database
      2m 57s
    2. Executing a stored procedure
      2m 4s
    3. Passing parameters
      3m 41s
    4. Getting return values
      2m 53s
  10. 1m 43s
    1. Next steps
      1m 43s

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Watch the Online Video Course SQL Server: Triggers, Stored Procedures, and Functions
1h 52m Advanced Sep 24, 2012

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

This course investigates several key database-programming concepts: triggers, stored procedures, functions, and .NET CLR (Common Language Runtime) assemblies. Author Martin Guidry shows how to combine these techniques and create a high-quality database using Microsoft SQL Server 2012. The course also covers real-world uses of the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE procedures, and how to build a basic web form to connect to your database.

Topics include:
  • Comparing triggers, functions, and stored procedures
  • Installing and configuring SQL Server
  • Creating a stored procedure
  • Returning data using data sets
  • Creating user-defined functions
  • Using "after," "instead," and nested triggers
  • Modifying existing stored procedures
  • Implementing logging on DELETE
  • Choosing between T-SQL and CLR
  • Executing a stored procedure
  • Passing parameters
Subjects:
Business Developer IT
Software:
SQL Server
Author:
Martin Guidry

Comparing triggers, functions, and procedures

Before we get into creating triggers, functions, and stored procedures let's talk about the similarities and differences. First, the similarities. All of these are database objects containing code that will be executed as a single unit. These things are similar to what other development platforms might call a method, a subroutine, or a module. Some other platforms also use the term procedure and function, similar to the way SQL Server uses those words. In SQL Server, triggers, functions, and stored procedures are typically written in a T-SQL, but they can also be implemented in any of the .NET languages like C# or VB.NET.

Now let's talk a little bit about the differences. Triggers and stored procedures are allowed to change data and commonly do change data, whereas a function is not allowed to change any data. The point of a function is always to return data. Sometimes it returns a single scalar value, sometimes it returns a table. Triggers never return data. A trigger has to accomplish all of its work by changing data and tables and there is no return value from a trigger. Stored procedures are somewhere in-between.

Typically, the point of a stored procedure is to change data in the underlying tables, but it is allowed to return a value if it wants to. It commonly returns a 0 or 1 to indicate success or failure. Probably, the biggest difference between the three is how they are called. The easiest to work with is a stored procedure. For a stored procedure, we just simply execute it directly from code using the phrase EXEC or the full word EXECUTE and then the name of the stored procedure.

This will cause a stored procedure to run at that time. We cannot use this technique with the other ones. So a function has to be part of a SELECT statement. So we see here we have a typical SELECT statement, calling first name and last name, but if I wrote a function that combined that into full name, I could just use that in line with the SELECT statement. I can use a function in the column list of a SELECT statement. I can also use it in the WHERE clause.

I could also use it in the ORDER BY clause of a single SELECT statement. These are all functions that return scalar values. It's also possible for a function to return an entire table and that will replace the table name here. We are not limited to just SELECT statements. we can also do the same thing with UPDATE, INSERT, and DELETE statements. So something like this where we're using the function to filter a DELETE statement.

Calling triggers is yet again a third technique. There is no way for me to issue a command that causes a trigger and just a trigger to run. A trigger always runs as a reaction to something. So I do something else on my machine, the machine performs that action, and then afterwards runs the trigger. Most commonly, triggers react to UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE statements. So if I have a trigger set up on a table and I run an insert statement on that table, immediately after that insert the trigger will take over and execute its code.

There is no way to just type in and save run this trigger now.

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