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Scaling objects

From: Rhino 4 Essential Training

Video: Scaling objects

In this video, let's take a look at how to scale objects in one, two, or three dimensions. As usual, Rhino lets you scale just about any object you can select. However, if you stop to think about it, a straight line can only be scaled in 2D because it doesn't yet have a third dimension. Likewise, the point object can't be scaled at all. And when we have a solid or polysurface object, it can then be scaled in any of three dimensions. So, let's take a look at that first situation. Now, a general rule: all scaling is going to require you to select an origin. That's the center where all scaling will be calculated from.

Scaling objects

In this video, let's take a look at how to scale objects in one, two, or three dimensions. As usual, Rhino lets you scale just about any object you can select. However, if you stop to think about it, a straight line can only be scaled in 2D because it doesn't yet have a third dimension. Likewise, the point object can't be scaled at all. And when we have a solid or polysurface object, it can then be scaled in any of three dimensions. So, let's take a look at that first situation. Now, a general rule: all scaling is going to require you to select an origin. That's the center where all scaling will be calculated from.

We have just got the latest leg design from the Robot Leg department and we have got a problem. This is way too close to the arm that we created earlier. So, we are going to scale this arm back down. Step one will be to create an origin somewhere on this arm to scale around. I don't have a point located where I might want one. So, let's create one right now. Let me go ahead and turn on Intersection and I am just going to create a one Point object from the menu here and pick this Intersection location.

That's where I want to scale it from. The Scale commands are located here on the main menu or under Transform > Scale > 1, 2, 3. I'll just go ahead and open up the icon. Click and drag to fly it out and leave that there. Let's scale the arm in three dimensions. I am going to start by selecting. Click the 3D Scale button. The first question is, please define the origin.

Let's turn our Point snap on, so we can now find it. This is why it's a good reason to work in the Perspective viewport so you don't pick the wrong spot. So, for all scales, we are going to pick a starting reference point and then an ending reference point. And this could be any two points that you select. So, I am just going to start outwards, and I'll move in to scale down. Conversely, if you move away from the original reference point, it's going to scale larger. So, it doesn't really matter what that is if you are just going to do an eyeball reduction.

So, that's looks about right. I will click again to accept. So, we saw that engineering situation where we have the intersection of the arm and leg. But I am now noticing that this arm looks a little too skinny. So, let's try the 1-D scale, and this is where it's really handy to be in the Perspective viewport. I want to make this 50% wider instead of eyeballing it. So, I need to pick an edge where there is 2 points along the same axis. I want to scale only in 1-D for thickness.

We'll select the 1-D scale command from the toolbar. Pick the object. Hit Enter since we have no more to add. Select the origin as one of the endpoints and instead typing a second reference, I'm just going to type in the scale factor. Notice what the command line says. So, I'm going to do that by entering 1.5 and that will be a 150% increase in width. Now, it will start scaling automatically, but it's asking for the second reference point to give it a direction. So, I am going to click on that second point.

So, let me zoom back out. You can see it's 150% thicker only in that one axis, one-dimensional scale. Let's explore 2-D scaling. And for that, I'm going to turn on another layer for some Robot 2-D geometry. Here we have a gear with a very specific size. Note that it's 19 units across, so that gives us a measurement of 9.5 for the radius. I have just been told we need to upsize this gear so it's 24 across.

So, that will be a 12 units radius. I don't know the exact percentage, but I don't need to with the next method of scaling. We will start with 2-D scale here on the toolbar. I am actually going to pick the dimensions as well. Enter when done. Select the origin. Intersection is selected so this will work just fine. And I'm going to pick the first reference point, so I want to make sure I'm very precise. Pick the edge that is currently 9.5. And you can see as I move around randomly it grows and shrinks.

I am going to type in an exact number that we want to hit, which would be half of 24 or 12. So, the dimensions have updated to verify that. It's now 24 across or 12 for a radius. These text labels are Rhino dimensions, which are able to be dynamically updated, and we will discuss those a little bit later. So, it's just another way to get things larger or smaller with exact precision. Let's take a look at a few more objects and do some 3-D scaling and 1-D scaling and point out some potential problems.

Okay. We have got this bracket here with some fillets already done on these inside holes. Those fillets are running in three dimensions. So, we have got to be careful about this. If we scale in three dimensions, we are fine. So, let's go ahead and do that. I'll pick the 3-D scale, select the bracket, right-click, origin point. For this example, I am going to type in 0.5 so we will get half the size of the original. Now, since I scaled in three dimensions, the fillets still look fine. So, that's the good case.

Here is the bad situation. We have a copy. I am going to scale this in one dimension, and then we'll take a look. 1-D scale, select the object, right-click, origin. First reference, I'll just click on this corner, and I'll type in 0.5 so it'll be half as thick. If we take a look, this are probably not what you want. These fillets have been completely squashed, and they are no longer a uniform radius everywhere. So, the workaround to avoid that problem is to do your fillets last whenever possible.

Pick this corner as the origin. Scale factor 0.5 to be half as thick. I will just make sure I've picked second point in alignment so it goes the correct direction. So, here everything looks fine, and now I can add a fillet to finish it out, and the fillets will be perfectly scaled for the exact size I want without any problems. Scaling objects is very straightforward and only occasionally tricky, but this gives you three different ways to determine the final size. So, you've got the eyeball method just for looks, the percentage method where you know the increase or decrease, and then you have the size method where you input how big it should be when you are done, and not need to worry about the math percentages.

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This video is part of

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Rhino 4 Essential Training

67 video lessons · 16833 viewers

Dave Schultze
Author

 
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  1. 4m 13s
    1. Welcome
      1m 1s
    2. Using the exercise files
      28s
    3. Recommended hardware
      2m 44s
  2. 19m 8s
    1. Understanding the three types of entities: curves, surfaces, and solids
      5m 51s
    2. Comparing Bezier curves, B-splines, and NURBS objects
      3m 35s
    3. Comparing isocurve surfaces and mesh surfaces
      4m 50s
    4. Setting measurement units and tolerance
      4m 52s
  3. 18m 16s
    1. Introducing the viewport
      3m 20s
    2. Using construction planes to anchor model design
      5m 27s
    3. Changing the way a model is viewed using shading modes
      3m 11s
    4. Navigating the viewport with pan, zoom, rotate, and reset controls
      3m 24s
    5. Exploring help options
      2m 54s
  4. 29m 48s
    1. Understanding Rhino's command philosophy
      3m 10s
    2. Using toolbars and docking buttons to a toolbar
      3m 33s
    3. Navigating the geometry menus using a "department store" analogy
      3m 35s
    4. Using the command line and status bar to get feedback
      4m 56s
    5. Modifying the nudge control and setting other preferences
      6m 54s
    6. Using the Properties window
      3m 1s
    7. Opening and saving files
      4m 39s
  5. 14m 24s
    1. Creating basic objects: curves, surfaces, and solids
      4m 22s
    2. Performing basic transformations
      3m 14s
    3. Selecting objects
      3m 37s
    4. Organizing a project using layers
      3m 11s
  6. 21m 18s
    1. Understanding lines and polylines
      4m 10s
    2. Building rectangles and polygons
      5m 12s
    3. Creating arcs, circles, and ellipses
      7m 8s
    4. Drawing freeform curves
      4m 48s
  7. 47m 36s
    1. Comparing different types of 3D surfaces
      7m 11s
    2. Extruding surfaces to create features in a model
      8m 58s
    3. Creating surfaces with lofts
      7m 49s
    4. Using Revolve and Rail Revolve to create surfaces
      7m 42s
    5. Using Sweep Rail to create a 3D claw
      7m 49s
    6. Creating complex surface shapes using Network Surface
      8m 7s
  8. 46m 48s
    1. Introducing solids
      5m 42s
    2. Making solids with primitives
      5m 41s
    3. Extruding curves to create solids without primitives
      8m 59s
    4. Creating unique shapes with the union, difference, and intersection Boolean operators
      6m 46s
    5. Troubleshooting solids and Booleans
      8m 53s
    6. Editing with the solid edit tools
      6m 20s
    7. Creating and transforming holes in solids
      4m 27s
  9. 27m 8s
    1. Understanding Rhino's modeling aids
      3m 59s
    2. Working with the Grid Snap modeling aid
      2m 22s
    3. Using the Ortho modeling aid
      3m 4s
    4. Using the Planar modeling aid
      2m 4s
    5. Incorporating the Osnap modeling aid into your workflow
      6m 7s
    6. Understanding the Project and Smart Track modeling aids
      4m 42s
    7. Setting cursor constraints
      4m 50s
  10. 50m 14s
    1. Editing corners with Fillet and Chamfer
      7m 38s
    2. Trimming and splitting with curve Booleans
      5m 37s
    3. Moving and rotating objects with the Drag and Nudge tools
      7m 24s
    4. Copying and pasting objects
      4m 10s
    5. Understanding how Rhino uses Undo and Redo
      3m 42s
    6. Grouping objects
      3m 21s
    7. Scaling objects
      6m 40s
    8. Duplicating objects using the Mirror command
      6m 36s
    9. Making copies and structured sets using arrays
      5m 6s
  11. 20m 37s
    1. Using the Analysis toolbar to understand characteristics of a model
      6m 14s
    2. Defining degrees of curve and surfaces
      6m 6s
    3. Using Rebuild and Change Degree
      8m 17s
  12. 26m 21s
    1. Measuring and labeling values on a model using dimensioning
      5m 22s
    2. Creating screen captures for quick proofs
      5m 16s
    3. Creating 2D views of a 3D model
      6m 44s
    4. Rendering a project
      8m 59s
  13. 22m 5s
    1. Preparing a model for prototyping by confirming that all gaps are closed
      5m 17s
    2. Using the "shelling" technique to create wall thickness
      10m 54s
    3. Exporting to the STL format for 3D printing
      5m 54s
  14. 14s
    1. Goodbye
      14s

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