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Extruding surfaces to create features in a model

From: Rhino 4 Essential Training

Video: Extruding surfaces to create features in a model

In this video, we will take a look at the Extrude command and explore some of its options. We are also going to introduce to additional commands: the Offset and the Surface and Planar curves. These are two of the most useful commands and boy, they are so darn handy. We will be using them regularly in conjunction with other surfacing commands. I am going to start off by working on the eyes and mouth of our robot. To do so, I am going to jump to the Front viewport and maximize it, double-click on the label, and I want to give some thickness to these eyes before we extrude them.

Extruding surfaces to create features in a model

In this video, we will take a look at the Extrude command and explore some of its options. We are also going to introduce to additional commands: the Offset and the Surface and Planar curves. These are two of the most useful commands and boy, they are so darn handy. We will be using them regularly in conjunction with other surfacing commands. I am going to start off by working on the eyes and mouth of our robot. To do so, I am going to jump to the Front viewport and maximize it, double-click on the label, and I want to give some thickness to these eyes before we extrude them.

So, I am going to start off with that Offset command I just mentioned. Okay. Anytime you see this selection menu popping up, it's Rhino saying there is multiple items in close proximity. So, I will go ahead and select the Curve, and the selection menu will close. Go to the Curve menu to find the Offset, and it defaults to whatever value was used last. Looks like it's 1. I am going to change this to the ThroughPoint option, which basically means any number you select.

So, I can kind of move it around, and this is a great design technique, so if you don't know that something is supposed to be 1 or 2.5, you can just do what I call the Eyeball approach. So, whenever it looks good, you click, and now we've got a copy that is offset exactly whatever that number was. So, here is another cool part about this Offset command. I am going to do it over on the other eye by selecting and then repeat the command. Notice it is defaulting to the prior number I set, which was 2.001.

So, I probably want them to match. I will just go ahead and right-click to accept. So, there we have the exact same offset on both of those eyes. I want to go back to the Perspective viewport now. Maximize. I am going to zoom in to make this work a little bit easier, and I am going to select both of these curves at the same time. I am adding to them by holding down the Shift key. We would then go to Surface > Extrude Curve > Straight and again, we could type in a number at any time.

I am going to go ahead and type in 2. See how that looks. Now, it looks like it went the wrong way. It's actually inside. So, you got to be careful about the direction. So, I will Ctrl+Z, undo it and repeat the command. You can do that by right-clicking in the white area at the top command line. Extrude those same two curves again.

This is a good opportunity to mention this little tooltip here. It's telling me the exact dimension, and I should have noticed that. Right now, it's -2. So, the +2 that I typed in just went the other way, which was inside. I will just go ahead and eyeball that again, so now we can use that setting, whatever it was, for the other eye. So, I am going to select the curve, Shift to add the other curve, right-click to repeat, and then instead of typing a number or eyeballing it, I am just going to hit the right-click to enter the prior value.

Okay, we have got both eyes, already offset and then extruded. Now here is a very cool tip. This is my personal favorite command; I hope you agree. This is the Surface from Planar Curves. So, this is a great way to finish off surfaces when its face is in a single plane. So, if that doesn't make sense, it will soon. Go to Surface > from Planar Curves, and I am going to pick those two edges and right-click to accept, so check this out.

We have got a surface that is essentially capped, and it wasn't built from two curves. It was built from the edges. So, it's important to note that Rhino, many times, if there is a clean, defined edge, you don't have to have a line there. Many commands will look at edges or lines, and they are both treated the same. Another thing to note here is the ISO Curves we discussed earlier, these lines across the surface. We've got one going this way and the other going the opposite way. That's telling you something. This surface is as simple as it possibly could be.

So, that's another great reason use this command. It's always just going to close it off with the simplest possible surface, and that's always the goal. Okay. Let's repeat it again, Surface > from Planar Curves, and pick the two edges, right-click and we are closed off. You might want to follow up here by selecting the three new surfaces and just joining them together. The Join command is over here on main toolbar, so it's a personal preference.

You can do it anytime or at the very end of the file. It just may keep things a little more organized. All right. Let's jump back to the Front viewport for working on the mouth. Before I do this same Offset command, I would like to put a radius around all four corners. So, I am going to select that and go to the Curve menu, and I am going to Fillet Corners. This is a nice command, and it's similar to Fillet Curves but corners will do all four at once.

I wanted one. That's the default. I will go ahead and accept. Nice; all four are done at one time. So, that's the difference between Fillet Curves and Fillet Corners. If there's a hundred corners, it will find all of them. Fillet Curves is just a single intersection. Fortunately, the commands are located right next to each other, so if you forget, you can find them pretty easily. Let's go ahead and Offset this to give it a thickness. To do this, I am going to use Curve > Offset Curve, and go ahead and just match that same size of the eye and we will switch back to Perspective, double-clicking to maximize.

Now, instead of a Straight Extrude, we are going to try a little variation called the Tapered Extrude. So, I am going to start off with this outer curve here, Surface > Extrude > Tapered, and you can see a subtle angle here that's controlled by the DraftAngle option here. And I will type in 10 to make it little more pronounced, and that looks great. It can go both directions. But actually, I want it to taper that opposite way going out, no problem.

I don't have to type in -10. I can just go up here and Click FlipAngle, so that does the same work. So, I am going to go out -2. This time, I will type the number just for practice. So, there is an extrusion that is straight linear, but with the exact angle that I used. Let's do that inside of the mouth with the next curve. Surface > Extrude > Tapered. You actually want to go the opposite direction here, so I am going to flip the angle one more time.

Now, it could accept the prior dimension, but let's say you didn't know what that was. So, I will just demonstrate here. We can snap to one of these corners. Just turn on Quadrant Snap, and it will find the corners. So, now, I've matched that distance, if I didn't happen to know the exact number. So, I am just showing a couple of different ways to do the same end result. And now we will close this off with my favorite command, Surface > from Planar Curves. Select the edges, right-click, until it is undone, and there we have the mouth tapering in both directions about 10 degrees each, for a distance of 2 and capped.

Even though the Extrude command will generate very linear forms, including when tapered, it is still one of the most frequently using surfacing commands due to the variety of forms you can create. Of course, the quality of any surface is only as good as the curve or curves that generate it. So, make sure your curves are very simple and ideally flattened Planar. I also showed you how to create additional surfaces using the Curved Offset command and then close it off with a surface from Planar Curves. So, remember those.

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This video is part of

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Rhino 4 Essential Training

67 video lessons · 16867 viewers

Dave Schultze
Author

 
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  1. 4m 13s
    1. Welcome
      1m 1s
    2. Using the exercise files
      28s
    3. Recommended hardware
      2m 44s
  2. 19m 8s
    1. Understanding the three types of entities: curves, surfaces, and solids
      5m 51s
    2. Comparing Bezier curves, B-splines, and NURBS objects
      3m 35s
    3. Comparing isocurve surfaces and mesh surfaces
      4m 50s
    4. Setting measurement units and tolerance
      4m 52s
  3. 18m 16s
    1. Introducing the viewport
      3m 20s
    2. Using construction planes to anchor model design
      5m 27s
    3. Changing the way a model is viewed using shading modes
      3m 11s
    4. Navigating the viewport with pan, zoom, rotate, and reset controls
      3m 24s
    5. Exploring help options
      2m 54s
  4. 29m 48s
    1. Understanding Rhino's command philosophy
      3m 10s
    2. Using toolbars and docking buttons to a toolbar
      3m 33s
    3. Navigating the geometry menus using a "department store" analogy
      3m 35s
    4. Using the command line and status bar to get feedback
      4m 56s
    5. Modifying the nudge control and setting other preferences
      6m 54s
    6. Using the Properties window
      3m 1s
    7. Opening and saving files
      4m 39s
  5. 14m 24s
    1. Creating basic objects: curves, surfaces, and solids
      4m 22s
    2. Performing basic transformations
      3m 14s
    3. Selecting objects
      3m 37s
    4. Organizing a project using layers
      3m 11s
  6. 21m 18s
    1. Understanding lines and polylines
      4m 10s
    2. Building rectangles and polygons
      5m 12s
    3. Creating arcs, circles, and ellipses
      7m 8s
    4. Drawing freeform curves
      4m 48s
  7. 47m 36s
    1. Comparing different types of 3D surfaces
      7m 11s
    2. Extruding surfaces to create features in a model
      8m 58s
    3. Creating surfaces with lofts
      7m 49s
    4. Using Revolve and Rail Revolve to create surfaces
      7m 42s
    5. Using Sweep Rail to create a 3D claw
      7m 49s
    6. Creating complex surface shapes using Network Surface
      8m 7s
  8. 46m 48s
    1. Introducing solids
      5m 42s
    2. Making solids with primitives
      5m 41s
    3. Extruding curves to create solids without primitives
      8m 59s
    4. Creating unique shapes with the union, difference, and intersection Boolean operators
      6m 46s
    5. Troubleshooting solids and Booleans
      8m 53s
    6. Editing with the solid edit tools
      6m 20s
    7. Creating and transforming holes in solids
      4m 27s
  9. 27m 8s
    1. Understanding Rhino's modeling aids
      3m 59s
    2. Working with the Grid Snap modeling aid
      2m 22s
    3. Using the Ortho modeling aid
      3m 4s
    4. Using the Planar modeling aid
      2m 4s
    5. Incorporating the Osnap modeling aid into your workflow
      6m 7s
    6. Understanding the Project and Smart Track modeling aids
      4m 42s
    7. Setting cursor constraints
      4m 50s
  10. 50m 14s
    1. Editing corners with Fillet and Chamfer
      7m 38s
    2. Trimming and splitting with curve Booleans
      5m 37s
    3. Moving and rotating objects with the Drag and Nudge tools
      7m 24s
    4. Copying and pasting objects
      4m 10s
    5. Understanding how Rhino uses Undo and Redo
      3m 42s
    6. Grouping objects
      3m 21s
    7. Scaling objects
      6m 40s
    8. Duplicating objects using the Mirror command
      6m 36s
    9. Making copies and structured sets using arrays
      5m 6s
  11. 20m 37s
    1. Using the Analysis toolbar to understand characteristics of a model
      6m 14s
    2. Defining degrees of curve and surfaces
      6m 6s
    3. Using Rebuild and Change Degree
      8m 17s
  12. 26m 21s
    1. Measuring and labeling values on a model using dimensioning
      5m 22s
    2. Creating screen captures for quick proofs
      5m 16s
    3. Creating 2D views of a 3D model
      6m 44s
    4. Rendering a project
      8m 59s
  13. 22m 5s
    1. Preparing a model for prototyping by confirming that all gaps are closed
      5m 17s
    2. Using the "shelling" technique to create wall thickness
      10m 54s
    3. Exporting to the STL format for 3D printing
      5m 54s
  14. 14s
    1. Goodbye
      14s

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