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Rhino 4 Essential Training

Creating surfaces with lofts


From:

Rhino 4 Essential Training

with Dave Schultze

Video: Creating surfaces with lofts

In this video, we'll build a robot leg and a few other things with the Loft command. Along the way, we'll also explore some of my excellent tips to get better results. Fortunately, the Loft may just be one of the most forgiving and easiest-to-use surfacing command in Rhino. But before we address that leg, which is very mechanical, let's take a look at some organic lofting examples. Go ahead and turn on our organic lofting layer, and so here is tip number one. You can loft between any two or more curves, but they must be either closed or opened, but not both.
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  1. 4m 13s
    1. Welcome
      1m 1s
    2. Using the exercise files
      28s
    3. Recommended hardware
      2m 44s
  2. 19m 8s
    1. Understanding the three types of entities: curves, surfaces, and solids
      5m 51s
    2. Comparing Bezier curves, B-splines, and NURBS objects
      3m 35s
    3. Comparing isocurve surfaces and mesh surfaces
      4m 50s
    4. Setting measurement units and tolerance
      4m 52s
  3. 18m 16s
    1. Introducing the viewport
      3m 20s
    2. Using construction planes to anchor model design
      5m 27s
    3. Changing the way a model is viewed using shading modes
      3m 11s
    4. Navigating the viewport with pan, zoom, rotate, and reset controls
      3m 24s
    5. Exploring help options
      2m 54s
  4. 29m 48s
    1. Understanding Rhino's command philosophy
      3m 10s
    2. Using toolbars and docking buttons to a toolbar
      3m 33s
    3. Navigating the geometry menus using a "department store" analogy
      3m 35s
    4. Using the command line and status bar to get feedback
      4m 56s
    5. Modifying the nudge control and setting other preferences
      6m 54s
    6. Using the Properties window
      3m 1s
    7. Opening and saving files
      4m 39s
  5. 14m 24s
    1. Creating basic objects: curves, surfaces, and solids
      4m 22s
    2. Performing basic transformations
      3m 14s
    3. Selecting objects
      3m 37s
    4. Organizing a project using layers
      3m 11s
  6. 21m 18s
    1. Understanding lines and polylines
      4m 10s
    2. Building rectangles and polygons
      5m 12s
    3. Creating arcs, circles, and ellipses
      7m 8s
    4. Drawing freeform curves
      4m 48s
  7. 47m 36s
    1. Comparing different types of 3D surfaces
      7m 11s
    2. Extruding surfaces to create features in a model
      8m 58s
    3. Creating surfaces with lofts
      7m 49s
    4. Using Revolve and Rail Revolve to create surfaces
      7m 42s
    5. Using Sweep Rail to create a 3D claw
      7m 49s
    6. Creating complex surface shapes using Network Surface
      8m 7s
  8. 46m 48s
    1. Introducing solids
      5m 42s
    2. Making solids with primitives
      5m 41s
    3. Extruding curves to create solids without primitives
      8m 59s
    4. Creating unique shapes with the union, difference, and intersection Boolean operators
      6m 46s
    5. Troubleshooting solids and Booleans
      8m 53s
    6. Editing with the solid edit tools
      6m 20s
    7. Creating and transforming holes in solids
      4m 27s
  9. 27m 8s
    1. Understanding Rhino's modeling aids
      3m 59s
    2. Working with the Grid Snap modeling aid
      2m 22s
    3. Using the Ortho modeling aid
      3m 4s
    4. Using the Planar modeling aid
      2m 4s
    5. Incorporating the Osnap modeling aid into your workflow
      6m 7s
    6. Understanding the Project and Smart Track modeling aids
      4m 42s
    7. Setting cursor constraints
      4m 50s
  10. 50m 14s
    1. Editing corners with Fillet and Chamfer
      7m 38s
    2. Trimming and splitting with curve Booleans
      5m 37s
    3. Moving and rotating objects with the Drag and Nudge tools
      7m 24s
    4. Copying and pasting objects
      4m 10s
    5. Understanding how Rhino uses Undo and Redo
      3m 42s
    6. Grouping objects
      3m 21s
    7. Scaling objects
      6m 40s
    8. Duplicating objects using the Mirror command
      6m 36s
    9. Making copies and structured sets using arrays
      5m 6s
  11. 20m 37s
    1. Using the Analysis toolbar to understand characteristics of a model
      6m 14s
    2. Defining degrees of curve and surfaces
      6m 6s
    3. Using Rebuild and Change Degree
      8m 17s
  12. 26m 21s
    1. Measuring and labeling values on a model using dimensioning
      5m 22s
    2. Creating screen captures for quick proofs
      5m 16s
    3. Creating 2D views of a 3D model
      6m 44s
    4. Rendering a project
      8m 59s
  13. 22m 5s
    1. Preparing a model for prototyping by confirming that all gaps are closed
      5m 17s
    2. Using the "shelling" technique to create wall thickness
      10m 54s
    3. Exporting to the STL format for 3D printing
      5m 54s
  14. 14s
    1. Goodbye
      14s

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Rhino 4 Essential Training
5h 48m Beginner Apr 08, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

In Rhino 4.0 Essential Training, author Dave Schultze shows how the 3D NURBS-based modeling tools in Rhino 4.0 are used to engineer products from toy robots to full-sized aircraft. This course concentrates on using Rhino 4.0 for industrial design and rapid prototyping, with a review of common 3D terminology using specific examples. Along with a comprehensive exploration of the Rhino interface, the course includes an introduction to building 3D objects with Rhino's three primary entities: the curve, the surface, and the solid. Exercise files are included with the course.

Topics include:
  • Understanding 3D terminology
  • Viewing a 3D model in Rhino 4.0
  • Manipulating objects with commands
  • Creating curves, surfaces, and solids
  • Applying transformations to 3D objects
  • Creating unique shapes with Boolean operators
  • Snapping to objects and planes
  • Defining curve and surface degree
  • Prototyping a 3D model
Subjects:
Architecture Modeling Product Design CAD 2D Drawing 3D Drawing
Software:
Rhino
Author:
Dave Schultze

Creating surfaces with lofts

In this video, we'll build a robot leg and a few other things with the Loft command. Along the way, we'll also explore some of my excellent tips to get better results. Fortunately, the Loft may just be one of the most forgiving and easiest-to-use surfacing command in Rhino. But before we address that leg, which is very mechanical, let's take a look at some organic lofting examples. Go ahead and turn on our organic lofting layer, and so here is tip number one. You can loft between any two or more curves, but they must be either closed or opened, but not both.

So, here is an example of a series of open curves that we'll loft. You could actually loft 50 or even 100, but that would probably be counter- productive and too much trouble. So, always try to keep the fewest number of curves to describe the form you're after. I'm going to start off by selecting all of these curves except for one. You will see why in just a minute. So, we're going to Surface > Loft. Not too many options, so I'm just going to go OK to accept the defaults, and note the result.

It is extremely clean. We can tell that by the number of isocurves here. We just got pretty much one, going down the middle, and several others right where the curves were. So, what that gives us, when we turn on the Control Points, is a shape that is very smooth, clean, and very easy to continue editing, if we choose to do so. So, I'm going to nudge a few of these control points for the surface around. Okay, turn those off. I'm going to throw this surface away, select and just hit the Delete key.

And now I'm going to use all of the curves. So, I'm going to select the whole batch, Surface > Loft and Accept. Now you'll notice right off the bat that there is more isocurves, and therefore more complexity on this resulting shape. So, here is the culprit. All these curves that are used for the first one, if you turn the Control Points on with F10, had three points on the entire curve, basically the minimum amount possible, except for this one curve here in the middle.

Now select it and hit F10, and you'll see that it has 16 Control Points. So, as easy as the Loft is to use, it will only be as simple or complicated as the most complicated curve in it. So, here you can see every one of these control points pretty much radiate complexity throughout the entire surface generated. And if I select the surface and turn its Control Points on with F10, that's a lot more control points to edit and move.

And the result is not quite as pleasing as the first one; we have some sharp edges there. Still smooth, but probably not as smooth as it could have been. I'm going to turn all the control points off. The shortcut key is F11, and delete the surface, and talk about the work around when you have different curves. So, I'll call this tip number two. So, instead of using a complicated curve, like this one, what I'll do is I just draw a one with the bare minimum of control points, then copy it and paste it, and move it to wherever it's needed.

Adjust it many times, but try to have each curve as simple as possible, and with the same number of control points. And that's very easy to do when you just make a copy of it. Those were open. Let's take a look at lofting with some closed curves. You'll notice that all the Control Points in these set are the same, at least per those numbers I had left. You can turn on the Control Points, and I did that exactly the way I just described. I made one of these shapes, adjusted the Control Points, and then copied and move them over, adjusting each one as I went.

So, not only do they have the same number of Control Points, they are actually in a nice, organized pattern. You can see them kind of lining up. Okay. I'm going to turn off the Control Points. Select the curves, and repeat Surface > Loft. Here is one of the differences in options here is we have seams now. Because these are closed. I don't need to know where the beginning and end point are occurring on each of these, because they may not always be this similar. So, before I accept that, it actually guessed exactly right. Let's kind of mess this up a little bit.

Move one of those around just to see what happens. I'm going to click OK, and let's take a look. So, it went ahead to made the surface, but you can see some serious twisting there towards the end, definitely not what you wanted. Let me go ahead and delete that, and let's rebuild it one more time. Surface > Loft. Seams look okay. So, since this was built from a series of curves and is one simple surface, again, we can turn the Control Points on and continue to edit, if you so choose.

I guess I'll turn off those pieces and get the robot a leg. I'm going to switch to Wireframe mode here. And we can see all these shapes that I have previously built. I've got actually four profiles here. Notice they are a little bit mechanical. That's fine. He is a robot. Go ahead and select these, do the Surface > Loft. In this case, the seams are a little bit out of the alignment.

So, I'm just going to move them to a similar position on each of those curves. You can also move them away, if you're not sure, and then come back. Make sure that it snaps. So, those are the quadrant points of each of the Filleted Edges. Go ahead and accept. Now I'll probably just switch over to Shaded View, so you could see it a little bit better, what's going on. And notice my mechanical shapes have been smoothly blended together.

So, that gives me the opportunity to show you the next option here. There is a default called Normal. But I am going to take a peek at what's inside here. We also have Straight sections. Let's take a look at that and do the Preview button. Notice we get nice, sharp interpolation between each of these curves. So, it's more of a mechanical fit. Even if they are very smooth curves, you get sharp joints between them. Another option that's pretty handy sometimes is the Loose option. So, if we do Preview, it smooths things out, but it only takes like an average.

You'll notice here it kind of misses the middle too, but definitely hits the ends. So, that's one way you can speed up your workflow. If you don't need these to be exact, you can get stuff in the rough position and just choose the Loose command. Let me go back to Straight sections. Hit OK. Another thing to note: I'm building as much as possible on the center at the origin, so that I can keep things organized and stacked up vertically. The plan being to then copy, then move them apart and maybe do a mirror later.

So, if I'm not sure how I want to model a surface, Lofting is usually the first surface command I'll try. Just remember, you need to have all opened or all closed curves, and then try keeping the number of Control Points the same, or similar from curve-to-curve. Finally, if your design is not fixed, be sure to explore all of the Lofting options, and don't settle for the defaults. There is a lot of cool stuff in there that might surprise you.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Rhino 4 Essential Training.


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Q: I'm noticing several differences between the options that author shows in the video and my copy of Rhino. For example, I can't select curves on the edge of a surface or turn on control point when vertically extruding a closed surface like an ellipse. Also, I do not get the Sweep option. I'm running on Mac OS X Snow Leopard.
A: This course was recorded on a Windows computer. As of February 2012, Rhino for Mac is still in beta, so it is not yet a full-fledged product. Wait until the full version comes out to see if these issues are resolved.
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