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Comparing different types of 3D surfaces

From: Rhino 4 Essential Training

Video: Comparing different types of 3D surfaces

In this video, we'll take a 3D tour of the most common types of Surfacing Commands. We'll see how they can all look the same and then with minor tweaks, how they can look quite a bit different. This will help to illustrate which one type of Surface Command will work best for you in your project. I've also purposely kept the examples pretty simple, so the before and after will be much easier to see. Let's start off with the CASE A, where all the surfaces that I am going to generate will look at the same, even though we are using 5 different commands. Just for reference though, I am going to go ahead and do this one Extrude and do it Straight.

Comparing different types of 3D surfaces

In this video, we'll take a 3D tour of the most common types of Surfacing Commands. We'll see how they can all look the same and then with minor tweaks, how they can look quite a bit different. This will help to illustrate which one type of Surface Command will work best for you in your project. I've also purposely kept the examples pretty simple, so the before and after will be much easier to see. Let's start off with the CASE A, where all the surfaces that I am going to generate will look at the same, even though we are using 5 different commands. Just for reference though, I am going to go ahead and do this one Extrude and do it Straight.

So, this is the Surface > Extrude Curve > Straight, select and then right-click to Enter. Then I am just going out to the end. Well, this won't look the same as the others, but I want to use it for reference, because the next command is Extruding (Along Curve) is very similar. So, let's find this up on the Surface menu > Extrude Curve > Along the Curve. First, you select the curves to extrude and then when you are done, you press right-click or Enter, and then you select the path curve.

So, let's zoom in and take a look. So, it has basically taken that one profile and extruded it along the curve. We'll examine that a little more closely when we finish the others. Let's now do a 1 Rail Sweep, Surface > Sweep 1 Rail. Now, this is where you have to kind of pay attention to the Command Line. It first says, "Select the rail." Then it asks you to instantly select the cross-section profiles, of which that can be more than one.

So, therefore, when you only have one, you have to Enter as soon as you are finished. So, I am going to do that by right-clicking. I am just going to accept the defaults. Now, I am going to try the 2 Rail Sweep, Surface > Sweep 2 Rails, and pick the 2 rails, one after the other. Now, note it doesn't asked me to hit Enter when I am done. So, I want you to be aware of this because it knows you selected a 2 Rail command. There are only 2 rails that can possibly select. So, the next option up, immediately, is select the cross section curves. Now, we are done.

We have to hit Enter. I'm going to Accept the defaults. A few more curves here. Let's do the Surface Loft. Note, there is no rails for this command, which makes it extremely powerful in many situations. We just have the three separate curves. So, they're Lofted together with a minimal surface they can connect them. Finally, we'll end up with this Surface from Curve Network. This is about the most powerful surfacing command in Rhino, but we are going to keep it pretty simple for this demo.

Surface > From Curve Network. I am just going to rotate my view here and select all the curves at once. Hit Enter when done. Again, there is a lot of options here. I am going to go ahead and Accept the defaults. So, let's take a look. The surfaces are all identical, but some are more complicated than the others, so that's one key difference. I want to switch the top view and show you another difference here. Ok. I'm going to zoom in.

Note, that the Extrude here on the left doesn't bank or angle the profile, whereas the Sweeps do angle or bank the profile. So, as the curve arcs, it will bend that profile with it. We'll see that more pronounced in the next examples. Let's go back to the Perspective viewport. Then look at the same group of five Surface Commands with slight modifications to each of the curves and totally different surface results. So, this would be CASE B. Now, the modification here is just noted with the number one, so not much difference.

So, let's go ahead and do the Surface > Extrude Curve > Along Curve. It looks very similar. Now, we should start getting into some variations here. I'm going to do the Sweep 1 Rail, selecting the rail first, then the cross section, right-click to Accept. And accept the defaults. Now notice on the 2 Rail Sweep, I am taking the 2 rails and moving them out of alignment.

One rail is a little bit limiting, because that profile is not going to change too much, because it's only following one rail along the bottom. 2 Rail Sweep is where you can start getting some major variations. Just go ahead and execute that command, Surface > Sweep 2 Rails. Select each rail, cross section, right-click. So, you see a much bigger difference, is that profile - we only had one - is morphed as it goes down the 2 rails as they diverge, so it is actually stretched and scaled as it goes.

Now, in the Loft situation, I have made some changes to each of the three profiles there. This one is in the center here is much taller. Let's try that command. Surface > Loft, select the curves, right-click to finish, hit OK. Notice, once again, we've got a minimum surface connecting all the profiles that were generating the surface.

Finally, we have the Surface and Curve Network, where I have made major changes to the profiles. Notice that this profile is actually going inwards this way, out for the second one and completely different for the third one. Furthermore, we have got the rails diverging quite a bit from the top to the bottom. Let's try that command, Curve > Network. Select them in order, going in the two directions.

When I'm done I am going to accept the defaults. So, it's a very powerful command that can generate very complex, or even simple forms, but from a wide variety of curves for input. I am going to zoom back out, take a look. So, in the first CASE A, I have kept all the input curves such that the resulting surface would be identical. In that slight variations, we get completely different results, in the CASE B scenario.

So, I have a handy rule, and this is how it goes. There is always two or three ways to model the same shape, sometimes four, and occasionally five. So, you should focus on which edges then need to be exact, or you can focus on a resulting surface simplicity, or you can just use whatever command you prefer. Sometimes, I'll even get totally unexpected results, and I like it better than what I was planning. So, you can then decide to change the design. The key is to remain flexible and use whatever works for you.

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This video is part of

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Rhino 4 Essential Training

67 video lessons · 17223 viewers

Dave Schultze
Author

 
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  1. 4m 13s
    1. Welcome
      1m 1s
    2. Using the exercise files
      28s
    3. Recommended hardware
      2m 44s
  2. 19m 8s
    1. Understanding the three types of entities: curves, surfaces, and solids
      5m 51s
    2. Comparing Bezier curves, B-splines, and NURBS objects
      3m 35s
    3. Comparing isocurve surfaces and mesh surfaces
      4m 50s
    4. Setting measurement units and tolerance
      4m 52s
  3. 18m 16s
    1. Introducing the viewport
      3m 20s
    2. Using construction planes to anchor model design
      5m 27s
    3. Changing the way a model is viewed using shading modes
      3m 11s
    4. Navigating the viewport with pan, zoom, rotate, and reset controls
      3m 24s
    5. Exploring help options
      2m 54s
  4. 29m 48s
    1. Understanding Rhino's command philosophy
      3m 10s
    2. Using toolbars and docking buttons to a toolbar
      3m 33s
    3. Navigating the geometry menus using a "department store" analogy
      3m 35s
    4. Using the command line and status bar to get feedback
      4m 56s
    5. Modifying the nudge control and setting other preferences
      6m 54s
    6. Using the Properties window
      3m 1s
    7. Opening and saving files
      4m 39s
  5. 14m 24s
    1. Creating basic objects: curves, surfaces, and solids
      4m 22s
    2. Performing basic transformations
      3m 14s
    3. Selecting objects
      3m 37s
    4. Organizing a project using layers
      3m 11s
  6. 21m 18s
    1. Understanding lines and polylines
      4m 10s
    2. Building rectangles and polygons
      5m 12s
    3. Creating arcs, circles, and ellipses
      7m 8s
    4. Drawing freeform curves
      4m 48s
  7. 47m 36s
    1. Comparing different types of 3D surfaces
      7m 11s
    2. Extruding surfaces to create features in a model
      8m 58s
    3. Creating surfaces with lofts
      7m 49s
    4. Using Revolve and Rail Revolve to create surfaces
      7m 42s
    5. Using Sweep Rail to create a 3D claw
      7m 49s
    6. Creating complex surface shapes using Network Surface
      8m 7s
  8. 46m 48s
    1. Introducing solids
      5m 42s
    2. Making solids with primitives
      5m 41s
    3. Extruding curves to create solids without primitives
      8m 59s
    4. Creating unique shapes with the union, difference, and intersection Boolean operators
      6m 46s
    5. Troubleshooting solids and Booleans
      8m 53s
    6. Editing with the solid edit tools
      6m 20s
    7. Creating and transforming holes in solids
      4m 27s
  9. 27m 8s
    1. Understanding Rhino's modeling aids
      3m 59s
    2. Working with the Grid Snap modeling aid
      2m 22s
    3. Using the Ortho modeling aid
      3m 4s
    4. Using the Planar modeling aid
      2m 4s
    5. Incorporating the Osnap modeling aid into your workflow
      6m 7s
    6. Understanding the Project and Smart Track modeling aids
      4m 42s
    7. Setting cursor constraints
      4m 50s
  10. 50m 14s
    1. Editing corners with Fillet and Chamfer
      7m 38s
    2. Trimming and splitting with curve Booleans
      5m 37s
    3. Moving and rotating objects with the Drag and Nudge tools
      7m 24s
    4. Copying and pasting objects
      4m 10s
    5. Understanding how Rhino uses Undo and Redo
      3m 42s
    6. Grouping objects
      3m 21s
    7. Scaling objects
      6m 40s
    8. Duplicating objects using the Mirror command
      6m 36s
    9. Making copies and structured sets using arrays
      5m 6s
  11. 20m 37s
    1. Using the Analysis toolbar to understand characteristics of a model
      6m 14s
    2. Defining degrees of curve and surfaces
      6m 6s
    3. Using Rebuild and Change Degree
      8m 17s
  12. 26m 21s
    1. Measuring and labeling values on a model using dimensioning
      5m 22s
    2. Creating screen captures for quick proofs
      5m 16s
    3. Creating 2D views of a 3D model
      6m 44s
    4. Rendering a project
      8m 59s
  13. 22m 5s
    1. Preparing a model for prototyping by confirming that all gaps are closed
      5m 17s
    2. Using the "shelling" technique to create wall thickness
      10m 54s
    3. Exporting to the STL format for 3D printing
      5m 54s
  14. 14s
    1. Goodbye
      14s

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