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Applying leading to paragraphs

From: QuarkXPress 8 Essential Training

Video: Applying leading to paragraphs

Now let's talk about leading. Leading is essentially the space between the lines of type. It's called leading, because in the old days of hot metal type setting, to increase the distance between lines of type, you would actually add a physical stripe of lead, and that would be the leading. But in the digital world, it really just refers to the distance from baseline to baseline of text in a paragraph. So let's look at this one right here. As we go down to the Measurements palette and look at Paragraph Attributes, we see that here the leading is set to Auto.

Applying leading to paragraphs

Now let's talk about leading. Leading is essentially the space between the lines of type. It's called leading, because in the old days of hot metal type setting, to increase the distance between lines of type, you would actually add a physical stripe of lead, and that would be the leading. But in the digital world, it really just refers to the distance from baseline to baseline of text in a paragraph. So let's look at this one right here. As we go down to the Measurements palette and look at Paragraph Attributes, we see that here the leading is set to Auto.

Now Auto, by default, is 120 % of the size of the type. So for example, if you had 10-point type, you would have 12-point leading, which means 12 points from baseline to baseline. Many times leaving it on Auto is the easiest way to deal with leading. But if you want to adjust it to something specific, you can type in any number here or use these arrows and click on them to increase or decrease the leading in the paragraph. QuarkXPress offers a third way of adjusting leading in a paragraph.

Besides auto and absolute numbers, you can enter a relative amount, which means it will add that much leading in addition to the point size of the type. So for example, if I type in +2, no matter what size type I make this paragraph be, the leading is going to be two points more than that. So if I make it 10 point, it will be 12-point leading. But if I make it 20 point, it will be 22-point leading and that can be useful in some circumstances, for example, when you are trying to work out a design.

Now you probably find yourself adjusting leading on paragraph so often that it will be helpful to remember some keyboard shortcuts to do it. In QuarkXPress, if you hold down Command+Shift and press the Quote key on your keyboard, you can increase the leading by one point at a time. On Windows that's Ctrl+Shift+Quote. To decrease it, you just choose the key right next to it, the semicolon. So Command+Shift+Semicolon decreases by one point or Ctrl+Shift+Semicolon on Windows will do that as well. If you want to increase or decrease the leading in a tenth of a point increments, just add the Option or Alt key and you will see the leading change by a tenth of a point.

In some versions of QuarkXPress 8, I have noticed that the Command+Option+Shift+Quote Marks don't increase by a tenth of a point. I'm trying it now. It is not working. But the semicolon does reduce it by a tenth of a point. So with any luck, they will fix that at some point. When you are formatting paragraphs in text boxes such as this, it can be important to show where one paragraph begins and another paragraph ends. The way we did it in this box was to use indents at the beginning of each paragraph. But another common way to do it is to add space above or below a paragraph.

In QuarkXPress, it's really easy to do that. So let's do a little trick here. I'm going to select all the paragraphs, again, by dragging over some portion of each one. I'm going to change the indent back to 0 so that all the paragraphs are just one after the other and now I'm going to add space below each paragraph, so the reader will more easily see when one paragraph ends and another begins. You can try that in the Paragraph Attributes tab at the Measurements palette right in this area here. If I mouse over this guy, it says Space Before Paragraph and this one says Space After Paragraph.

So I'm going to put space after the paragraphs and notice how they just kind of drop down below each other now. I can also add space above the paragraphs. In certain circumstances, space above is more appropriate and in others, space below is more appropriate. Now the final kind of paragraph alignment I want to talk about is the vertical alignment within a text box. To do that, let's just look at this text box right here. I'll get the Item tool. Let's take this text box in the upper right-hand corner and duplicate it off to the side so we can play with it.

The quickest way to do that is to click on the box and then hold down the Option or Alt key and drag over to the side. That will duplicate it. Now, I'm going to increase the height of the text box to show you that this text is in this text box aligned to the top of the text box. If I go down to the Measurements palette and click on the Text tab of the Measurements palette, these icons on the left allow you to adjust the way the text is aligned within the box. Right now, it's aligned to the top of the box. What if we align it to the bottom? There it is, bounced to the bottom, center and Justified.

The Justified option is particularly handy when you know you have the text in the box and you know you are going to be resizing the box and you just want the text to fill it. Obviously, if you care about the leading of the type, that's not going to work for you. But if you don't, then being able to drag the box to any height that you want is a very flexible design option. In text-heavy publications or other designs, the way the paragraphs are formatted often will determine the overall look of the piece itself. So being able to easily control the indents, the space before and after, the leading of the text, and the alignment of the text within the box is an essential part of your design arsenal.

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This video is part of

Image for QuarkXPress 8 Essential Training
QuarkXPress 8 Essential Training

120 video lessons · 8369 viewers

Jay Nelson
Author

 
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 5m 17s
    1. Welcome
      51s
    2. Using the exercise files
      54s
    3. What is QuarkXPress?
      3m 32s
  2. 39m 1s
    1. Getting started
      2m 26s
    2. Managing files in Quark
      9m 52s
    3. Exploring the QuarkXPress interface
      11m 22s
    4. Restoring, reverting, and undoing
      4m 9s
    5. Navigating your layout
      6m 45s
    6. Adding and moving pages
      4m 27s
  3. 51m 57s
    1. Understanding items and contents
      4m 54s
    2. Making boxes and lines
      6m 32s
    3. Putting text on a path
      8m 48s
    4. Moving and locking items
      1m 44s
    5. Resizing, reshaping, rotating, and flipping items
      2m 33s
    6. Duplicating items
      3m 25s
    7. Deleting items
      1m 49s
    8. Using the Bézier Pen tool
      4m 20s
    9. Converting text to boxes
      2m 4s
    10. Understanding relationships between items
      4m 53s
    11. Merging shapes
      2m 1s
    12. Setting item styles
      5m 13s
    13. Using Item Find/Change
      3m 41s
  4. 30m 55s
    1. Reviewing the Layers palette
      8m 12s
    2. Utilizing guides and rulers
      4m 16s
    3. Understanding Guide Manager Pro
      5m 24s
    4. Using frames, dashes, and stripes
      4m 57s
    5. Setting libraries
      5m 18s
    6. Appending settings
      2m 48s
  5. 39m 57s
    1. Building a new layout
      3m 40s
    2. Creating projects and layouts
      4m 48s
    3. Working with Master Pages
      2m 44s
    4. Creating automatic text boxes
      3m 15s
    5. Working with Master Pages and Layout Pages
      5m 15s
    6. Making pages
      6m 1s
    7. Modifying your pages
      2m 5s
    8. Using automatic page insertion
      2m 44s
    9. Using automatic page numbering and "continued"
      4m 45s
    10. Working with sections and page numbering
      3m 29s
    11. Building with multipage spreads
      1m 11s
  6. 25m 5s
    1. Navigating through a layout
      1m 49s
    2. Selecting text
      4m 41s
    3. Deleting text
      1m 4s
    4. Changing text case
      59s
    5. Importing text
      4m 39s
    6. Exporting text
      2m 52s
    7. Showing invisible characters
      2m 6s
    8. Using the Glyph panel
      4m 27s
    9. Working with ligatures
      2m 28s
  7. 10m 50s
    1. Finding and changing
      6m 3s
    2. Using Spell Check
      4m 47s
  8. 35m 27s
    1. Understanding basic character formatting
      4m 15s
    2. Setting color, shade, and transparency
      2m 36s
    3. Using horizontal and vertical scaling
      3m 55s
    4. Setting kerning and tracking
      7m 38s
    5. Inserting typographic special effects
      7m 53s
    6. Adjusting font preferences and open-type fonts
      5m 32s
    7. Finding a missing font
      3m 38s
  9. 29m 29s
    1. Applying basic paragraph formatting
      3m 10s
    2. Applying leading to paragraphs
      5m 7s
    3. Establishing paragraph rules
      3m 4s
    4. Setting tabs
      6m 14s
    5. Setting hyphenation and justification
      3m 41s
    6. Understanding widow and orphan control
      3m 54s
    7. Working with hanging characters
      4m 19s
  10. 27m 53s
    1. Linking items together
      3m 58s
    2. Learning about style sheets
      1m 52s
    3. Creating style sheets
      3m 57s
    4. Editing style sheets
      4m 24s
    5. Applying styles
      3m 40s
    6. Deleting styles
      2m 7s
    7. Appending styles
      3m 17s
    8. Using grids
      4m 38s
  11. 22m 55s
    1. Building tables
      3m 19s
    2. Importing Excel tables
      3m 13s
    3. Working with tables
      5m 25s
    4. Formatting tables
      2m 50s
    5. Splitting tables with headers and footers
      3m 19s
    6. Adding graphics
      2m 41s
    7. Converting a table to text or a group
      2m 8s
  12. 14m 34s
    1. Building books
      5m 20s
    2. Creating lists
      5m 2s
    3. Building an index
      4m 12s
  13. 23m 18s
    1. Importing pictures
      4m 50s
    2. Working with pictures
      2m 48s
    3. Mastering picture management
      3m 50s
    4. Editing and exporting pictures
      2m 48s
    5. Looking into preview quality and greeking images
      5m 18s
    6. Exporting a page as EPS
      3m 44s
  14. 12m 25s
    1. Working with Photoshop documents
      4m 44s
    2. Understanding the Style menu
      3m 3s
    3. Building picture effects
      4m 38s
  15. 10m 54s
    1. Working with text runaround
      7m 32s
    2. Setting anchored boxes
      3m 22s
  16. 32m 4s
    1. What You See and What You Get
      2m 42s
    2. Describing color
      3m 28s
    3. Specifying color
      7m 13s
    4. Creating color blends
      5m 15s
    5. Setting opacity
      4m 55s
    6. Using color from outside sources
      1m 55s
    7. Understanding color management and proofing
      6m 36s
  17. 15m 8s
    1. Synchronizing items
      3m 11s
    2. Building composition zones
      4m 8s
    3. Working in shared layouts
      2m 25s
    4. Understanding job jackets
      5m 24s
  18. 15m 21s
    1. Collecting for output and exporting
      1m 14s
    2. Adjusting basic printer settings
      3m 39s
    3. Reviewing advanced printer settings
      8m 44s
    4. Establishing print styles
      1m 44s
  19. 16m 10s
    1. Creating and exporting a PDF
      4m 4s
    2. Creating PDF output styles
      1m 44s
    3. Building hyperlinks in interactive PDFs
      4m 23s
    4. Adding bookmarks for interactive PDFs
      5m 59s
  20. 20m 58s
    1. Building a web page
      4m 12s
    2. Inserting hyperlinks in a document
      3m 18s
    3. Creating a form for HTML
      2m 54s
    4. Exporting and importing as HTML
      5m 20s
    5. Building Flash projects
      5m 14s
  21. 6m 15s
    1. Working with XTensions
      3m 2s
    2. Scripting in QuarkXPress 8
      3m 13s
  22. 13s
    1. Goodbye
      13s

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