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Pro Tools 9 Essential Training
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Utilizing fades and crossfades


From:

Pro Tools 9 Essential Training

with David Franz

Video: Utilizing fades and crossfades

To create smooth edits while editing audio regions in Pro Tools, you should utilize fades and crossfades at most region beginnings and endings. Fades and crossfades are used to prevent pops, clicks, or sudden changes in sound at region boundaries, as well as to smooth transitions between regions or create special audio effects. Let's listen to where we need to apply some fades and crossfades. Let me start by playing this region here, and you are going to hear a click right at the very beginning of the region.
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  1. 13m 13s
    1. Welcome
      1m 16s
    2. Exploring the different versions of Pro Tools
      2m 30s
    3. Optimizing your computer before installing Pro Tools
      4m 6s
    4. Troubleshooting
      2m 18s
    5. Using the exercise files
      3m 3s
  2. 31m 3s
    1. Installing and authorizing Pro Tools
      1m 50s
    2. Connecting your Pro Tools system
      4m 1s
    3. Powering up and powering down
      58s
    4. Choosing the Playback Engine and Hardware settings
      4m 13s
    5. Optimizing Pro Tools performance
      5m 52s
    6. Utilizing Automatic Delay Compensation (ADC)
      1m 38s
    7. Setting essential preferences
      2m 35s
    8. Creating a Pro Tools session
      3m 43s
    9. Identifying elements in a session folder
      2m 33s
    10. Creating new tracks
      3m 40s
  3. 42m 9s
    1. Exploring the Edit window
      6m 52s
    2. Exploring the Mix window
      3m 11s
    3. Exploring the Transport and Big Counter windows
      2m 57s
    4. Using the Color palette and window arrangements
      2m 36s
    5. Investigating the menus
      3m 13s
    6. Understanding samples and ticks
      3m 34s
    7. Viewing and manipulating tracks
      4m 31s
    8. Selecting inputs, outputs, and buses
      3m 58s
    9. Selecting an I/O Settings file
      4m 12s
    10. Understanding signal paths and gain stages
      3m 46s
    11. Utilizing keyboard shortcuts and keyboard focus
      3m 19s
  4. 19m 31s
    1. Using DigiBase and the Workspace browser
      4m 22s
    2. Importing audio
      3m 1s
    3. Importing MIDI
      2m 46s
    4. Importing session data
      3m 44s
    5. Importing tracks from a CD
      2m 44s
    6. Importing video
      2m 54s
  5. 1h 0m
    1. Recording audio
      6m 14s
    2. Playing back audio
      10m 0s
    3. Creating a click track
      5m 25s
    4. Overdubbing and using the record modes
      8m 29s
    5. Recording with playlists and Loop Record
      4m 3s
    6. Punch recording and using the monitoring modes
      4m 17s
    7. Dealing with latency and ADC
      4m 58s
    8. Creating a group
      4m 52s
    9. Adding effects while recording
      5m 17s
    10. Creating a headphone (cue) mix
      4m 29s
    11. Assigning disk allocation
      2m 17s
  6. 1h 19m
    1. Understanding nondestructive editing and region types
      3m 3s
    2. Using the Selector and Grabber tools
      3m 29s
    3. Using the Trimmer and Scrubber tools
      8m 16s
    4. Using the Zoomer tool and Zoom presets
      5m 41s
    5. Using the Pencil tool
      2m 46s
    6. Using the Smart tool
      1m 28s
    7. Understanding the Edit modes
      5m 9s
    8. Arranging regions
      5m 33s
    9. Undoing an edit
      2m 8s
    10. Utilizing fades and crossfades
      7m 22s
    11. Building a comp track using playlists
      4m 50s
    12. Locking and muting regions
      2m 52s
    13. Special Edit window buttons
      6m 47s
    14. Creating an audio loop
      4m 13s
    15. Editing a voiceover
      8m 37s
    16. Using Elastic Time and Elastic Pitch
      7m 38s
  7. 19m 27s
    1. Working with region groups
      6m 39s
    2. Using time, tempo, meter, key, and chord
      5m 37s
    3. Creating memory locations
      7m 11s
  8. 30m 47s
    1. Setting up MIDI on a Mac
      4m 7s
    2. Setting up MIDI on a PC
      2m 13s
    3. Setting up MIDI in Pro Tools
      2m 37s
    4. Recording MIDI data
      3m 7s
    5. Recording multiple MIDI tracks with one virtual instrument
      2m 17s
    6. Recording options for MIDI
      5m 44s
    7. Using step input
      4m 14s
    8. Making a drum loop with MIDI Merge
      3m 36s
    9. Composing with virtual instruments
      2m 52s
  9. 54m 25s
    1. Using the edit tools for editing MIDI data
      9m 47s
    2. Editing MIDI data in the MIDI Editor
      8m 17s
    3. Working with the MIDI event list
      2m 13s
    4. Editing MIDI data with event operations
      8m 35s
    5. Quantizing MIDI tracks
      12m 16s
    6. Creating and using groove templates
      5m 35s
    7. Utilizing real-time properties
      3m 49s
    8. Using MIDI Learn
      3m 53s
  10. 17m 44s
    1. Exploring the Score Editor
      5m 56s
    2. Using the Score Editor
      5m 11s
    3. Setting up a score
      4m 48s
    4. Printing and exporting a score
      1m 49s
  11. 25m 45s
    1. Writing and editing automation
      7m 21s
    2. Drawing automation with the Pencil tool
      3m 58s
    3. Editing automation with the Trimmer and Grabber tools
      2m 26s
    4. Cutting, copying, pasting, and clearing automation
      4m 2s
    5. Turning automation on and off
      4m 0s
    6. Automating plug-ins and virtual instruments
      3m 58s
  12. 1h 33m
    1. Setting up a session for mixing
      7m 53s
    2. Setting up an effects loop
      9m 30s
    3. Working with plug-ins
      4m 33s
    4. Utilizing ADC while mixing
      9m 11s
    5. Applying EQ
      9m 25s
    6. Adding compression and limiting
      13m 27s
    7. Adding depth effects: Delay and reverb
      12m 45s
    8. Applying AudioSuite plug-ins
      4m 14s
    9. Bouncing down a mix and making an MP3
      5m 44s
    10. Setting up a session for mastering
      4m 36s
    11. Mastering a session
      7m 35s
    12. Bouncing down master recordings with Dither and Noise Shaping
      4m 52s
  13. 10m 6s
    1. Importing and displaying video files
      2m 42s
    2. Adding music, foley, ADR, and FX
      4m 32s
    3. Bouncing down video and audio together
      2m 52s
  14. 4m 22s
    1. Archiving an entire session
      4m 22s
  15. 52s
    1. Further Recommendations
      52s

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Pro Tools 9 Essential Training
8h 23m Beginner Nov 05, 2010

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Pro Tools 9 Essential Training with musician and producer David Franz demonstrates concepts and techniques necessary for recording, editing, mixing, and mastering in the industry-standard software for music and post-production. The course covers creating music with virtual instruments and plugins, editing with elastic audio for time and pitch manipulation, creating a musical score, and mixing with effects loops. Exercise files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Exploring the Pro Tools interface
  • Choosing a playback engine and other settings
  • Setting up Pro Tools hardware and software properly
  • Importing audio
  • Recording and editing audio and MIDI
  • Arranging a session
  • Writing and editing automation
  • Mixing and mastering a session
  • Using automatic delay compensation
  • Bouncing down a mix as an MP3
  • Importing and displaying video
  • Archiving a session
Subjects:
Audio + Music DAWs
Software:
Pro Tools
Author:
David Franz

Utilizing fades and crossfades

To create smooth edits while editing audio regions in Pro Tools, you should utilize fades and crossfades at most region beginnings and endings. Fades and crossfades are used to prevent pops, clicks, or sudden changes in sound at region boundaries, as well as to smooth transitions between regions or create special audio effects. Let's listen to where we need to apply some fades and crossfades. Let me start by playing this region here, and you are going to hear a click right at the very beginning of the region.

(Music playing.) Did you hear that click right when this bass started playing? (Music playing.) There is also one at the very end. (Music playing.) Let me show you what's causing this. I am going to zoom in very close. You'll see the audio region right here goes from having no sound to having this waveform right here. Ideally, you would want to start with 0 amplitude, like this area right here at the very beginning, so it can fade in to the sound.

But the pop click sound that you hear is coming from when you go from 0 sound immediately to a higher amplitude value, so let's create a fade in to avoid that. The first way, we can use the selector, and highlight an area and go to the Edit menu, choose Fades > Create. That will open the Fades dialog box. Here we can choose the shape that we want for the fade. We can also choose whether it's Equal Power or Equal Gain.

We'll talk about that a little bit later in this video. If you want to, you can click and drag to change the shape of this. So I am going to click OK, and that's what the fade looks like. Let's zoom out and hear what it sounds like. (Music playing.) There is no more click. Mission accomplished. Now, there are easier ways to make fades. Let's make a fade out for the end of this track.

With the Smart tool enabled, we can simply go to the top of the region, click and drag, and that will create a fade for us. Let's take a listen to that now. (Music playing.) Well, that's not ideal. I can still hear a little bit coming out of there. So maybe we make this a little bit longer. (Music playing.) That's a little bit better, but we can still keep working on it if we want to.

Now, let's go make a crossfade. I'm going to go over to between these two regions, and let's listen to what's happening here. (Music playing.) There's a big click pop right in the middle. (Music playing.) So now I am going to click and drag, create a fade, and we can use the key command-- Command+F on a Mac or Ctrl+F on a PC-- and open the Crossfade dialog box. While we are in here, let me explain a little bit more about what's in here.

In this Link section, we have Equal Power, Equal Gain, and None. Choose Equal Power when creating a crossfade between two completely different types of musical material, so that there's no volume drop as there might be with an Equal Gain crossfade. Choose Equal Gain when creating a crossfade between two identical types of musical material to avoid clipping that might occur from an Equal Power crossfade. In most circumstances, I actually find Equal Power to be the best choice.

You can also choose None, if you want to edit the fade out and fade in separately, but let's keep this as Equal Power. Now, let's listen to the fade while we are in this window. We can hit the Audition button. (Music playing.) Well, that's no good. The notes are crossing over each other and overlapping way too much, so we get two pitches happening at the same time; the crossfade is too long. So let's cancel this, and instead, let's go with the Crossfade tool. Click and drag it, and we'll create a much shorter crossfade.

If we use the Smart tool and go to the Grabber mode, double-click it, and you can open up the fades dialog. Let's audition this again. (Music playing.) That's much smoother. When you create a fade or a crossfade with the Smart tool, Pro Tools relies on the preferences that you have set about the fades. So if we go to Setup > Preferences into the Editing page, we can choose our default settings for our fades.

Click on the crossfade. You can see that Equal Power is chosen as our default, with these standard shapes as well. I like that, so I am going to check OK. Since crossfades are created by fading between overlapping audio material, a crossfade cannot be performed on regions that do not contain audio material beyond the region boundaries. Let's take a look at what I am talking about. If we go to this area here--and I've got the Trimmer tool--if I try to trim and extend that over to the right, there's no material to extend.

So if I go down here to try to create a crossfade and click and drag, Pro Tools is going to give me this warning, "One or more fade requests are invalid due to insufficient audio data within the fade bounds. You may skip the invalid fade request(s), or adjust the bounds for those fades (where possible)." So we can skip them, or we can have Pro Tools automatically adjust them if there is audio on this side. We know that there is no audio on the other side of this, beyond this boundary.

But if there is audio from this side that extends beyond the region boundary over here, then we'll be able to create a crossfade. So let's hit Adjust Bounds, and see what Pro Tools can do. In fact, there is audio over here, so Pro Tools automatically shifted the crossfade to earlier in time so that there was enough material to create the crossfade. One other thing that I want to mention about fades and crossfades is that they're actually written to your hard drive and stored in a folder named Fade Files.

That's within your session folder. When you play back your track, Pro Tools reads these files and plays them back from your hard drive. They are actually WAV files. If you end up losing your fade files, Pro Tools can actually recreate these files from the session file if they're not present on your hard drive. Fades and crossfades are essential tools for editing digital audio. Use them well and your audio edits will be super-smooth.

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