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Understanding temporal compression

From: Premiere Pro CS4 Beyond the Basics

Video: Understanding temporal compression

The other type of compression, continuing on from our discussion in the last movie, is temporal compression, temporal meaning time. So as we talked about spatial compression will look at a frame and then compress that frame while temporal compression will look at a series of frames and see what's different. So it might look at this current frame and then as I go to the next frame, it looks almost identical and the next frame is almost identical, next frame is almost identical, next frame is almost identical.

Understanding temporal compression

The other type of compression, continuing on from our discussion in the last movie, is temporal compression, temporal meaning time. So as we talked about spatial compression will look at a frame and then compress that frame while temporal compression will look at a series of frames and see what's different. So it might look at this current frame and then as I go to the next frame, it looks almost identical and the next frame is almost identical, next frame is almost identical, next frame is almost identical.

So we can look at all the pixels that are the same. In the temporal compression method, we will look and see if this pixels the same through the next ten frames, then I'll just remember that pixel and I won't have to make ten different copies of it. I'll just remember that it's basically the same. In other words, it doesn't have to keep track of every single pixel. It's just to has keep track of the changes over time. Now there is a very simplified way of explaining how it works, but that's the basic idea. So spatial compression is again referred to as intraframe compression and temporal compression is referred to as interframe compression and as spatial compression is to image compression then temporal compression is to motion compression.

So it looks it again a series of frames over time and as with spatial compression the more you have action, the more movement you have, then also the more changes you have from frame to frame and the more that temporal compression is not going to be able to compressed things quite as much, because there are all kinds of new information on so many pixels from frame to frame. Now not too many formats use temporal compression and I will tell you why. The ability to use temporal compression really makes small file sizes, because you're not only compressing spatially, but you are compressing in time as well and it really brings file sizes down quite a bit.

The problem is is that these formats have to use something called a group of pictures. It has to has the group say like 20 frames and then look at all those frames and keep those frames together in a whole and then editing them is kind of a nightmare. It's much more taxing on your system. So say for example, let's go to the Sequence dropdown so we have some visuals here. I am going to create New Sequence and we get in this New Sequence dialog box and we see a couple of the big interframe compression methods. HDV is a big one.

MPEG-2 is big one. AVCHD is a big one. These are great formats. They are very optimal compression, but they are very hard to work with when you are editing and again it does take a lot more out of your system to process those files as you're working. It has to kind of unwrap them in a very complex way that slows things down quite a bit. Now one of the new formats that's making a big stir is AVC-Intra. You see AVCHD is a pretty powerful compression method, but it is an interframe, or in other words, temporal compression method.

And so what they have done is they have come out with AVC-Intra, so it uses a lot of the genius of the AVC compression method. But it's an intraframe or, in other words, spatial compression type. So basically it's all the benefits of AVCHD and all the benefits also of spatial compression, which you don't have in AVCHD. So it's my prediction that we are going to see a lot more AVC-Intra in like handheld video and other things, because it's a really optimal format, easy to edit with, because it has spatial compression and yet it does a good job of compressing stuff as well.

So there's a little primer on video compression. I hope that helps. To sum up again, AVCHD, HDV, MPEG-2 those are temporal compression algorithms and often called interframe compression, so they do compress things quite a bit. A lot of quality, very small file sizes. But they are kind of a mother to work with when you are editing. It's often better to use a spatial compression method for the files that you are editing such as AVC-Intra or most of the other file formats.

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Premiere Pro CS4 Beyond the Basics

82 video lessons · 20120 viewers

Chad Perkins
Author

 
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  1. 4m 11s
    1. Welcome
      56s
    2. What's new in the dot release
      57s
    3. Using the exercise files
      2m 18s
  2. 18m 54s
    1. Capturing ambient audio
      3m 12s
    2. Getting plenty of coverage
      1m 48s
    3. Telling a story with camera angles
      3m 18s
    4. The 180 degree rule
      2m 13s
    5. Framing shots
      3m 25s
    6. Allowing "emotional space"
      1m 40s
    7. Overcranking and time lapse
      3m 18s
  3. 11m 38s
    1. Why is metadata important?
      1m 40s
    2. Browsing and adding metadata
      6m 4s
    3. Creating metadata with Speech Search
      3m 54s
  4. 33m 12s
    1. When to cut
      7m 38s
    2. Avoiding bad edits
      9m 17s
    3. Using emotional cutaways
      1m 53s
    4. Fixing problems with cutaways
      3m 53s
    5. Pacing edits
      3m 49s
    6. Matching action
      4m 14s
    7. The power of suggestive editing
      2m 28s
  5. 26m 31s
    1. Contrasting targeting and selecting
      3m 17s
    2. Copying and pasting clips
      2m 36s
    3. Replacing clips
      4m 8s
    4. Editing to music
      5m 0s
    5. Using sample rate for precise editing
      5m 34s
    6. Creating J and L cuts
      3m 33s
    7. Working with subclips
      2m 23s
  6. 11m 17s
    1. Ingesting media
      1m 39s
    2. Examining P2 file structure
      1m 31s
    3. Importing P2 files with the Media Browser
      5m 15s
    4. Converting DVCPRO HD to standard 720p
      2m 52s
  7. 38m 11s
    1. Using the Reference Monitor
      3m 0s
    2. Using scopes
      8m 33s
    3. Primary color correction
      10m 11s
    4. Secondary color correction
      8m 28s
    5. Creating a vignette
      2m 28s
    6. Creating a day-for-night shot
      5m 31s
  8. 37m 19s
    1. Censoring video
      5m 30s
    2. Creating a waving flag
      6m 5s
    3. Creating a lens flare
      3m 36s
    4. Creating background textures
      6m 19s
    5. Playing with time
      6m 4s
    6. Using transition effects
      6m 13s
    7. Working with presets
      3m 32s
  9. 15m 30s
    1. Creating a garbage matte
      3m 56s
    2. Removing green screen
      5m 6s
    3. Compositing with blend modes
      3m 32s
    4. Nesting sequences
      2m 56s
  10. 15m 27s
    1. Creating 3D reflections
      5m 0s
    2. Creating growing vines
      5m 52s
    3. Creating a track matte
      2m 39s
    4. Using the History panel
      1m 56s
  11. 42m 25s
    1. Censoring audio using bleeps
      5m 16s
    2. Understanding sample rate
      3m 0s
    3. Normalizing audio across multiple clips
      5m 7s
    4. Recording audio
      2m 24s
    5. Removing audio problems with Soundbooth
      5m 43s
    6. Working with VST plug-in effects
      2m 3s
    7. Mixing audio
      8m 20s
    8. Changing volume over time
      5m 22s
    9. Working with surround sound
      5m 10s
  12. 23m 52s
    1. About this project
      2m 26s
    2. Performing preliminary edits
      2m 35s
    3. Working with multi-camera footage
      7m 27s
    4. Creating a visual "stutter"
      3m 12s
    5. Adjusting color
      8m 12s
  13. 6m 28s
    1. Transferring projects to another machine
      3m 24s
    2. Removing unused footage
      3m 4s
  14. 25m 46s
    1. Choosing a format
      5m 35s
    2. Understanding spatial compression
      2m 5s
    3. Understanding temporal compression
      4m 19s
    4. About HD standards
      5m 46s
    5. Changing footage interpretation
      2m 17s
    6. Getting the film look
      5m 44s
  15. 27m 10s
    1. Working with After Effects
      5m 56s
    2. Creating titles in After Effects
      5m 39s
    3. Working with Photoshop files
      2m 29s
    4. Working with Final Cut Pro
      2m 2s
    5. Working with OnLocation
      3m 12s
    6. Working with Encore
      4m 27s
    7. Introducing Adobe Story for pre-production
      3m 25s
  16. 15s
    1. Goodbye
      15s

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