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The interpolation settings


From:

Photoshop CC One-on-One: Fundamentals

with Deke McClelland

Video: The interpolation settings

This next topic is pretty technical, but I think it's important to understand if you really want to come to terms with the Image Size command here inside Photoshop. It's all about methods of interpolation, which is how Photoshop takes the existing pixels inside of an image and decides to rewrite them when either upsampling or downsampling. And to give you an idea of what I'm talking about, I'll go up to the Image menu and choose the Image Size command. Whenever the Resample check box is turned on, you have access to this pop-up menu, and these are the interpolation options, right here. By default, it's set to automatic, but you can overwrite that default setting by applying any of these other 6 options.
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  1. 38m 23s
    1. Welcome to One-on-One
      1m 51s
    2. Opening from the Windows desktop on Windows 8 (CC 2014)
      6m 16s
    3. Opening from the Windows desktop on Windows 7 or earlier (CC)
      5m 48s
    4. Opening from the Macintosh Finder
      7m 10s
    5. Opening from Photoshop or Bridge
      3m 52s
    6. Opening an image from Mini Bridge (CC)
      2m 39s
    7. Opening through Camera Raw
      5m 11s
    8. Closing one image and closing all
      5m 36s
  2. 52m 47s
    1. Navigating your image
      40s
    2. The dark vs. the light interface
      6m 2s
    3. Navigating tabs and windows
      4m 32s
    4. Panels and workspaces
      6m 20s
    5. Zooming incrementally
      6m 22s
    6. Zooming continuously
      2m 43s
    7. Entering a custom zoom value
      2m 25s
    8. Scrolling and panning images
      2m 31s
    9. Rotating and resetting the view
      2m 11s
    10. Cycling between screen modes
      3m 10s
    11. Using the Navigator panel
      3m 38s
    12. Using Retina and HiDPI displays
      4m 3s
    13. Adjusting a few screen preferences
      8m 10s
  3. 1h 2m
    1. Digital imaging fundamentals
      1m 45s
    2. Image size and resolution
      6m 34s
    3. The Image Size command
      6m 9s
    4. Common resolution standards
      4m 7s
    5. Upsampling vs. real pixels
      7m 59s
    6. Changing the print size
      8m 15s
    7. Downsampling for print
      5m 14s
    8. Downsampling for email
      6m 22s
    9. The interpolation settings
      6m 40s
    10. Downsampling advice
      5m 5s
    11. Upsampling advice
      4m 15s
  4. 53m 21s
    1. The layered composition
      1m 40s
    2. Introducing the Layers panel
      4m 13s
    3. Adding, scaling, and aligning layers
      5m 27s
    4. Dragging and dropping layers
      4m 36s
    5. Stack, reveal, and rename
      3m 1s
    6. Opacity, history, and blend mode
      6m 5s
    7. Duplicating a selected portion of a layer
      5m 32s
    8. Applying a clipping mask
      3m 58s
    9. Blending inside a clipping mask
      4m 10s
    10. Finishing off your artwork
      3m 13s
    11. Creating a new layer and background
      4m 24s
    12. Layering tips and tricks
      7m 2s
  5. 26m 13s
    1. The art of the save
      54s
    2. Four things to know about saving
      5m 59s
    3. Saving layers to PSD
      6m 34s
    4. Saving print images to TIFF
      4m 48s
    5. Saving an interactive image to PNG
      3m 40s
    6. Saving a flat photo to JPEG
      4m 18s
  6. 32m 16s
    1. Honing in on your image
      1m 43s
    2. The new and improved Crop tool
      4m 35s
    3. Editing your last crop
      6m 29s
    4. Cropping to a specific ratio or size
      5m 57s
    5. Straightening a crooked image
      4m 44s
    6. Filling in missing details
      6m 44s
    7. Using the Perspective Crop tool
      2m 4s
  7. 44m 51s
    1. First, there is brightness
      2m 12s
    2. How luminance works
      4m 18s
    3. The three Auto commands
      3m 27s
    4. Automatic brightness and contrast
      6m 5s
    5. The Brightness/Contrast command
      2m 47s
    6. The dynamic adjustment layer
      4m 4s
    7. Editing adjustment layers
      3m 52s
    8. Isolating an adjustment with a layer mask
      3m 31s
    9. Introducing the histogram
      4m 58s
    10. Measuring an adjustment
      3m 34s
    11. Using the Shadows/Highlights command
      6m 3s
  8. 44m 34s
    1. And second, there is color
      1m 31s
    2. Identifying a color cast
      3m 34s
    3. Correcting a color cast automatically
      3m 57s
    4. Changing the color balance
      6m 10s
    5. Compensating with Photo Filter
      3m 11s
    6. Adjusting color intensity with Vibrance
      3m 29s
    7. Correcting color casts in Camera Raw
      5m 46s
    8. The Hue/Saturation command
      5m 26s
    9. Summoning colors where none exist
      4m 9s
    10. Making more color with Vibrance
      4m 27s
    11. Making a quick-and-dirty sepia tone
      2m 54s
  9. 55m 47s
    1. Making selective modifications
      1m 11s
    2. The geometric Marquee tools
      6m 1s
    3. Aligning one image element to another
      4m 59s
    4. The freeform Lasso tools
      3m 59s
    5. The Polygonal Lasso tool and Quick Mask
      5m 19s
    6. Cropping one selection inside another
      6m 15s
    7. Creating rays of light
      4m 44s
    8. Quick Selection and Similar
      4m 11s
    9. Making it better with Refine Edge
      4m 56s
    10. Integrating image elements
      2m 39s
    11. Magic Wand and Grow
      5m 17s
    12. Refine, integrate, and complete
      6m 16s
  10. 53m 48s
    1. Your best face forward
      1m 0s
    2. Content-Aware Fill
      6m 11s
    3. Using the Spot Healing Brush
      5m 36s
    4. The more capable "standard" Healing Brush
      5m 55s
    5. Meet the Clone Source panel
      3m 53s
    6. Caps Lock and Fade
      4m 57s
    7. The Dodge and Burn tools
      5m 1s
    8. Adjusting color with the Brush tool
      6m 35s
    9. Smoothing skin textures
      5m 57s
    10. Brightening teeth
      4m 0s
    11. Intensifying eyes
      4m 43s
  11. 49s
    1. Until next time
      49s

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Watch the Online Video Course Photoshop CC One-on-One: Fundamentals
7h 45m Beginner Jun 28, 2013 Updated Sep 17, 2014

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Get the ultimate foundation in Adobe Photoshop CC, in this update to the flagship series Photoshop One-on-One. Deke takes you on a personalized tour of the basic tools and techniques that lie behind great images and graphic design, while keeping you up to speed with the newest features offered with Creative Cloud. Learn to open images from multiple sources, get around the panels and menus, and work with layers—the feature that allows you to perform masking, combine effects, and perform other edits nondestructively. Then Deke shows how to perform important editing tasks, such as cropping and straightening images, adjusting the luminance of your image, correcting color imbalances and enhancing color creatively, and finally, retouching and healing.

Topics include:
  • What is color correction?
  • Comparing RGB and CMYK color modes
  • Using grayscales and neutrals for color correction
  • Understanding pixels and bit depth
  • Evaluating and correcting images with histograms
  • Using nondestructive editing tools
  • Removing a color cast
  • Performing curve corrections in Camera Raw
  • Affecting creative adjustments
  • Retouching an image
  • Sharpening images
  • Preparing for print and web use
Subjects:
Design Photography
Software:
Photoshop
Author:
Deke McClelland

The interpolation settings

This next topic is pretty technical, but I think it's important to understand if you really want to come to terms with the Image Size command here inside Photoshop. It's all about methods of interpolation, which is how Photoshop takes the existing pixels inside of an image and decides to rewrite them when either upsampling or downsampling. And to give you an idea of what I'm talking about, I'll go up to the Image menu and choose the Image Size command. Whenever the Resample check box is turned on, you have access to this pop-up menu, and these are the interpolation options, right here. By default, it's set to automatic, but you can overwrite that default setting by applying any of these other 6 options.

And let me show you how those work. I'll go ahead and press the escape key in order to exit the dialogue box, and I'll switch over to this image, here. So, I took these gray checkers, which we're viewing at the 200% view size. And then I downsampled them to 72% using each one of the interpolation settings, and I came up with this diagram here. And then after I downsampled them, by the way, I went ahead and magnified them to 800% so we can really see what's going on.

Alright, so I'll go ahead and zoom into this first guy right here, nearest neighbor, and nearest neighbor applies no interpolation whatsoever. So it does't average the pixels in any way. It's just one color ends up winning or losing and that's all there is to it. So as a result, we have some rows and columns that are very thick like so, and others that are thinner, like this one here. So there's a certain unevenness going on. I never use nearest neighbor for down sampling, by the way, but it can be useful for upsampling.

For example, that's how I up sampled each one of these interpolative results so I didn't introduce any transitional pixels. And as long as you interpolate by even numbers, that is multiples of 100, then you'll increase the size of the pixels uniformly. The next option here is bilinear, and it is the simplest of the actual interpolation methods, because it really just runs a straight average of the pixels. So in this case, this area became sort of a middling grey because Photoshop was trying to average between the dark gray and the light gray.

Next, we've got the various Bicubics and what Bicubic tries to do is increase the sharpness, uses a series of derivatives that you don't need to know about. It's much more complicated, but it's trying to create sharp detail, and it does so by creating halos, as you can see here. So we have this little dark tracing around the dark checker, and we've got this light tracing around the light checker. If you want to downplay the halos then you can switch to bicubic smoother, which is a kind of compromise between bicubic and the bilinear that we saw before, and we end up with less pronounced halos. If you want bigger, badder, halos then you switch to bicubic sharper. And you can see that we have some very dark halos indeed around the dark checkers, and some pronounced light halos around the light checkers. And that's going to result in what appears to be sharper details still, which is why it's the auto setting, so if you leave re sample set to auto, then Photoshop applies bicubic sharper.

When you down sample an image. Now I'll go ahead and switch over to the newest option, Preserve Details, and you can see that it results in these pronounced halos as well. And in fact it creates a very nearly identical effect to bicubic sharper, where these checkers are concerned. And in my test the only difference that I've found is it tries to run some shape analysis as well, which is why I've managed to achieve some pretty interesting results. By downsampling using preserve details so you might want to keep that in mind.

Alright now for the upsampling, I'm going to switch over to gray checkers small.tif and its a small reversion of the checkers we're still seeing it at the 200% view size. And I took this one and I upsampled it using all of the interpolation settings to 576% just so that we have a fixed amount. And so I'll go ahead and switch over to that version of the file, and I will zoom in as well. Now when you run nearest neighbor again, either a color wins or a color loses that's all that happens there's no averaging going on. Because we're upsampling even though its not a multiple of 100% everything looks pretty darn uniform although there are some differences in the size of the checkers.

Bilinear just goes ahead and runs sets straight averaging as you can see, and as a result, we get some very soft gradient transitions right here. And as a result, it can be very useful, by the way, if, during a down sample or an up sample, you end up getting too sharp of a result. Bicubic doing the same thing, as we saw before. It's drawing halos around each one of the checkers, and we also have some blur in between the checkers just as we do with bilinear.

If you want to downplay those halos, then you can switch to Bicubic Smoother. If you want to emphasize the halos, then you swicth to Bicubic Sharper. And then finally, we have these ultra halos right here. That are created by Preserve Details, and again, Preserve Details is also doing some shape analysis, so it does a good job of upsampling things like circles and diagonal lines, that are not naturally expressed by square pixels, which is why it's the automatic setting. So, if you leave Resample set to Auto, when upsampling, then Photoshop applies the Preserve Details option.

Now what's interesting about this, take a look at this. Previous versions of Photoshop automatically applied by Cubic Smoother. Which provides us with some very soft transitions. Now it applies preserved details, which provides us with some very sharp transitions. So we've gone from one of the softer settings, to one of the sharper settings. Just something that I want you to be aware of. So that's how the various interpolation methods work. In the next movie, I'll show you how to apply them when downsampling a photographic image.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Photoshop CC One-on-One: Fundamentals .


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Q: This course was updated on 09/17/2014. What changed?
A: Deke updated the course to reflect changes in the 2014 version of Photoshop CC. This includes everything from opening the program to retouching your photographs with the Healing and Content-Aware tools.
 
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