Photoshop CS4 Essential Training
Illustration by Don Barnett

Transforming


From:

Photoshop CS4 Essential Training

with Jan Kabili

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Video: Transforming

When you want to change the size or the shape of an image then you will use the Transform commands. You can transform an entire layer, as I will show you how to do here, or a selection or even a selection boundary. The thing to keep in mind about transforming is that it does degrade the image. So you don't want to transform the same content over and over. The solution to that is to convert a layer that you want to transform to a Smart Object before transforming. I'll show how to do that in an upcoming movie. For now, let's just look at the Transform commands. I have the flowers layer selected in this image and I am going to go up to the Edit menu and I am going to choose Transform.
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  1. 2m 31s
    1. Welcome
      1m 27s
    2. Using the example files
      1m 4s
  2. 25m 14s
    1. Touring the interface
      4m 25s
    2. Working with tabbed documents
      5m 15s
    3. Using tools efficiently
      3m 51s
    4. Arranging panels
      3m 53s
    5. Customizing keyboard shortcuts
      2m 50s
    6. Saving a custom workspace
      3m 0s
    7. Changing screen modes
      2m 0s
  3. 19m 3s
    1. Touring the Bridge interface
      6m 31s
    2. Opening images from Bridge
      1m 20s
    3. Reviewing images
      4m 42s
    4. Finding images
      6m 30s
  4. 44m 53s
    1. Setting preferences
      4m 23s
    2. Choosing color settings
      8m 11s
    3. Zooming and panning
      5m 27s
    4. Resizing and image resolution
      3m 17s
    5. Adding to the canvas
      2m 2s
    6. Rotating the canvas
      1m 44s
    7. Choosing color
      4m 49s
    8. Sizing a brush tip
      3m 4s
    9. Undoing and the History panel
      5m 0s
    10. Saving and file formats
      3m 29s
    11. Creating a file from scratch
      3m 27s
  5. 37m 58s
    1. Making geometric selections
      6m 14s
    2. Modifying selections
      4m 43s
    3. Combining selections
      3m 16s
    4. Using the Quick Selection tool
      5m 34s
    5. Refining selection edges
      4m 12s
    6. Using Quick Mask mode
      2m 18s
    7. Selecting with the improved Color Range command
      4m 32s
    8. Selecting with the Magnetic Lasso tool
      2m 28s
    9. Using the Background Eraser tool
      3m 7s
    10. Saving selections
      1m 34s
  6. 39m 56s
    1. Understanding layers
      5m 43s
    2. Creating layers
      5m 12s
    3. Working in the Layers panel
      2m 19s
    4. Locking layers
      4m 17s
    5. Working with multiple layers
      4m 6s
    6. Merging and flattening layers
      3m 55s
    7. Adding a shape layer
      4m 43s
    8. Basic layer masking
      4m 23s
    9. Using layer blend modes and opacity
      5m 18s
  7. 23m 19s
    1. Cropping
      3m 26s
    2. Straightening
      3m 17s
    3. Transforming
      4m 42s
    4. Working with Smart Objects
      6m 48s
    5. Using Content-Aware Scaling
      5m 6s
  8. 1h 10m
    1. Reading histograms
      4m 21s
    2. Using adjustment layers and the Adjustment panel
      6m 4s
    3. Adjusting tones with Levels
      7m 49s
    4. Limiting adjustments with layer masks
      5m 40s
    5. Using masks in the new Masks panel
      6m 9s
    6. Limiting adjustments by clipping
      3m 6s
    7. Adjusting with Shadow/Highlight
      5m 7s
    8. Adjusting with Curves
      7m 37s
    9. Adjusting with Hue/Saturation
      3m 42s
    10. Adjusting with Vibrance
      2m 16s
    11. Removing a color cast
      4m 26s
    12. Using the Black & White adjustment layer
      2m 39s
    13. Using the Dodge Burn and Sponge tools
      4m 11s
    14. Reducing noise
      2m 39s
    15. Sharpening
      4m 42s
  9. 38m 0s
    1. Using the Spot Healing Brush tool
      5m 17s
    2. Using the Healing Brush tool
      5m 51s
    3. Using the Patch tool
      4m 52s
    4. Using the Clone Stamp tool
      4m 8s
    5. Enhancing eyes
      9m 29s
    6. Changing facial structure
      5m 0s
    7. Softening skin
      3m 23s
  10. 44m 38s
    1. What's a raw image?
      4m 25s
    2. Touring the Camera Raw interface
      7m 35s
    3. Working in the Basic panel
      7m 54s
    4. Working in the Tone Curve panel
      2m 21s
    5. Working in the HSL/Grayscale and Split Toning panels
      3m 46s
    6. Looking at the other Camera Raw panels
      3m 45s
    7. Using the Adjustment Brush tool
      4m 2s
    8. Using the Graduated Filter tool
      3m 56s
    9. Working with multiple files
      6m 54s
  11. 21m 6s
    1. Using the Brushes panel
      8m 30s
    2. Filling with color
      3m 49s
    3. Replacing color
      4m 14s
    4. Using gradients
      4m 33s
  12. 16m 55s
    1. Working with point type
      9m 59s
    2. Working with paragraph type
      3m 17s
    3. Warping text
      3m 39s
  13. 25m 23s
    1. Adding a layer style
      4m 6s
    2. Customizing a layer style
      3m 35s
    3. Copying a layer style
      3m 5s
    4. Creating a new style
      3m 32s
    5. Using Smart Filters
      5m 22s
    6. Working in the Filter Gallery
      5m 43s
  14. 13m 14s
    1. Auto-blending focus
      4m 47s
    2. Creating Photomerge panoramas
      4m 2s
    3. Combining group photos
      4m 25s
  15. 23m 27s
    1. Creating an action
      7m 16s
    2. Batch processing with an action
      6m 36s
    3. Using the Image Processor
      9m 35s
  16. 29m 20s
    1. Printing
      11m 32s
    2. Making a contact sheet from Bridge
      6m 12s
    3. Creating a web gallery from Bridge
      7m 17s
    4. Preparing photos for the web
      4m 19s
  17. 30s
    1. Goodbye
      30s

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Watch the Online Video Course Photoshop CS4 Essential Training
7h 55m Beginner Oct 13, 2008

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Photoshop has become an indispensible tool for photographers, designers, and all other creative professionals, as well as students. Photoshop CS4 Essential Training teaches a broad spectrum of core skills that are common to many creative fields: working with layers and selections; adjusting, manipulating, and retouching photos; painting; adding text; automating; preparing files for output; and more. Instructor Jan Kabili demonstrates established techniques as well as those made possible by some of the new features unique to Photoshop CS4. This course is indispensable to those who are new to the application, just learning this version, or expanding their skills. Example files accompany the course.

Topics include:
  • Learning and customizing the interface and workspace
  • Utilizing various manual and guided selection techniques
  • Working with Adobe Camera Raw
  • Adding special effects with layer styles and Smart Filters
  • Creating Photomerge panoramas
  • Optimizing photos for the web and creating web galleries
Subject:
Photography
Software:
Photoshop
Author:
Jan Kabili

Transforming

When you want to change the size or the shape of an image then you will use the Transform commands. You can transform an entire layer, as I will show you how to do here, or a selection or even a selection boundary. The thing to keep in mind about transforming is that it does degrade the image. So you don't want to transform the same content over and over. The solution to that is to convert a layer that you want to transform to a Smart Object before transforming. I'll show how to do that in an upcoming movie. For now, let's just look at the Transform commands. I have the flowers layer selected in this image and I am going to go up to the Edit menu and I am going to choose Transform.

Here you can see a whole list of the different kinds of Transform commands. Sometimes I'll come to the Transform menu when I want to do something unusual like Flip Horizontal. What that did is actually flipped the image, so I see a mirror image of the way it was originally. That can come in handy if you're doing something like making a collage, but for the most part, when I'm transforming I use the other kind of Transform, which is Free Transform, and I use the shortcut for that which is Command+T on the Mac or Ctrl+T on a PC.

You can see that command here in the Edit menu above the Transform command. So I'll select that and when I do, I get a bounding box around the content of the selected flowers layer. And there are some anchor points at the corners and on the edges of the bounding box. Let's say that I want to make the flowers image smaller. To do that, I'll move my mouse over one of those anchor points so that the cursor changes to a double-pointed arrow. Then I'm going to hold the Shift key down and I'm going to drag down. It's important to hold the Shift key, because that constraints the proportion.

Then I'm going to release my mouse and then release the Shift key. While I'm still in Transform mode, I can click anywhere in the image and drag to move it. If I were done transforming at this point, I would go to the Options bar and click the checkmark at the top-right. And I'm not going to do that now, because I want to transform this layer some more. As long as I don't click the checkmark, I can perform as many Transform commands as I want without degrading the image. So for example, if I wanted to rotate the image, I would move my mouse over one of its corners and when the cursor became a double-pointed curved arrow, I would drag and that would rotate the image.

You can also rotate the image from the Options bar by typing the angle in this field here. In the Options bar you can change the reference point for rotating. So for example, if I click right there and then I rotate, the image rotates from the lower-left corner. I'll put that back to the middle so I can show you a couple of other Transform commands. Let's say I want to distort the image. In that case I will come to one of the corners. I'll hold down the Command key on a Mac or the Ctrl key on a PC.

Remember I'm still in Free Transform and I can distort the image that way. I'll press Command+Z on the Mac to undo that or Ctrl+Z on the PC. If I want to skew the image, which means to slant it, then I'm going to hold down the Command and Option keys on the Mac or the Ctrl and Alt keys on a PC and I will go to one of the side anchor points, and drag on that to slant the image. I am going to undo that with Command+Z or Ctrl+Z. Finally, if I hold down three keys at once, the Command+Option+Shift key on a Mac, that's the Ctrl+Alt+Shift key on a PC, and I go to one of the corner anchor points and drag, I can change the perspective of the image.

I'll Command+Z or Ctrl+Z again to undo that. There is one more kind of transforming that I want to show you and that's Warping. I am still in Free Transform mode and from here I can go up to the Options bar and click this third icon from the right to switch over to Warp mode. Now if I come into the image and I drag on any one of the corners, I can really change that shape. When I drag a corner I also get one of these Bezier handles. You can barely see it here. I am going to click on the point at the end of the handle and then drag to further warp the image.

You can also click inside the image when you're warping and drag and that kind of bumps the content out. When I am all done Warping, I'll go back to the Warp icon, click it, and that takes me back to Transform mode. From here I could perform another Transform command like sizing or rotating or whatever I want and when I'm all done transforming, and only then I go to the checkmark and click, and that commits the transform. So you can see you have lots of flexibility with the Transform commands, but they do degrade the image.

So you should convert layers to Smart Objects before transforming them, as I will show you how to do in an upcoming movie.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Photoshop CS4 Essential Training .


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Q: How can artwork be transferred from Photoshop CS4 to Illustrator CS4 without the background?
A: Save the image in Photoshop’s native PSD format. The background in Photoshop must be transparent, meaning there should be no background layer. (To remove a background layer, move your artwork to a separate layer by selecting and copying the content, minus the background, to a new layer, and then delete the background layer. A checkboard pattern behind your image indicates transparent pixels.) 
 


In Illustrator, select File > Open, and select the PSD file. In Photoshop Import dialog box, select Convert Layers to Objects.

Q: How do I retouch an image I have of an old photograph I scanned?
A: There are a few courses that address image restoration. Check out the Photoshop CS4 Portrait Retouching Essential Training course, and for problems dealing specifically with old photographs, watch the Restoration movies in chapter 15 of the Enhancing Digital Photography with Photoshop CS2. Additionally, learn how to research and date photos with our Growing and Sharing Your Family Tree course.
Q: A client has asked for artwork to be delivered as JPEGs or BMP files in 16-bit format. In Photoshop CS4, there does not appear to be an option to save an image as a 16-bit JPEG. Is there a way to save JPEG files as 16-bit in Photoshop?
A: Unfortunately, JPEGs cannot be saved in 16 bit. JPEGs, by nature, are 8-bit. So if you open a high-bit image into Photoshop CS4, you will see no option in any of the save dialog boxes to save the file as a JPEG. You would first have to convert the image to 8 bit (by choosing Image > Mode > 8 bits/channel) and then save it as an 8-bit JPEG. If you open a high-bit image into Photoshop CS5, you will see the option to save it as a JPEG in the Save, Save As, and Save for Web dialog boxes.  But the JPEG will not be saved as 16-bit. Instead, Photoshop will downsample it to 8-bit for you  before saving it as JPEG.
 
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