# Subtracting and transforming shapes

## Video: Subtracting and transforming shapes

I've saved my progress as Shapes so far, found inside the 27_pen_tool folder. Thus far, we have added a series of shapes in order to fill out the light bulb. We've got two rectangles, one vertical, one horizontal. We've got one ginormous circle, and then two smaller circles on either side of the vertical rectangle. In this exercise, we are going to begin subtracting from our shapes in order to create this contoured edge along the left side and the right side of the light bulb. Now, this is going to involve not only subtracting one shape from another, but it's also going to involve a little bit of transforming shapes, that is, scaling and rotating them.

## Subtracting and transforming shapes

I've saved my progress as Shapes so far, found inside the 27_pen_tool folder. Thus far, we have added a series of shapes in order to fill out the light bulb. We've got two rectangles, one vertical, one horizontal. We've got one ginormous circle, and then two smaller circles on either side of the vertical rectangle. In this exercise, we are going to begin subtracting from our shapes in order to create this contoured edge along the left side and the right side of the light bulb. Now, this is going to involve not only subtracting one shape from another, but it's also going to involve a little bit of transforming shapes, that is, scaling and rotating them.

When we get into the transformation territory, Photoshop starts having screen redraw problems. So, I'm just warning you about that upfront. If somehow you're not seeing what you should see on screen, just bear in mind that it's fairly normal behavior for the program right now. Anyway, I'm going to go ahead and scroll over to the left-hand side of the image a little bit. I'm going to grab my Ellipse tool, because we're going to be cutting a circle out of this area right there for starters. I'm going to switch to the Subtract Mode, so that we'd go about subtracting right off the bat from our existing shape.

So I'll switch to Subtract Mode. I should still see the Paths option selected. If it isn't selected for you, it may be because your vector mask is not active. So, make sure that it is here inside the Layers panel. Then, I'm going to drag with the tool like so, and I'm going to press the Shift key as I come in closer on that side of the shape, and I just forced an auto-scroll, which is unfortunate, because now I can't really see what I'm doing. But that's okay, once I get it more or less aligned like so, I'll go ahead and release, and I had the Shift key down the entire time, by the way, so I released the mouse button first, and then released the Shift key.

Sure enough, that circle is not big enough. I'm going to go ahead and select the Black Arrow tool, the Path Selection tool if you like. I'll click on the circle to select it. Then I'll go up to the Edit menu and I'll choose Free Transform Path. So notice as soon as you're working with a path outline, whether it's a shape outline what have you, it's going to say Free Transform Path to indicate that you're transforming a vector outline as opposed to pixels. It still has the same keyboard shortcut, Ctrl+T, Cmd+T on the Mac. I'm going to move the transformation origin over here to the right-hand point, so it snaps into alignment.

Then, while I drag this upper-left point, and I'm going to give myself a little more room to work, I'm going to press the Shift and Alt keys. The Shift key because I want to constrain the proportions to a circle, the Alt key or the Option key on a Mac, because I want to scale with respect to that transformation origin. All right, once I get about there, it looks like I have matched the edge pretty well. Now, this is a great example of how Photoshop does not keep up with your path outline transformations. It just doesn't. It's completely baffling, but it doesn't show things properly.

We are doing things properly, don't worry about that. It's just that the screen redraw is not keeping up. Now, you would expect that when you press the Enter key or the Return key in order to apply the transformation, then Photoshop would get with the program, but it doesn't. Now, notice over here in this little thumbnail, if you're seeing your thumbnails, and it very much helps to see them, which means that if you have smaller thumbnails going inside the Layers panel, I very much urge you to right-click in this lower region, where there are no layers, and choose Large Thumbnails. That way you can keep track of what's going on, at least a little bit, with your vector outlines.

Notice that I am cutting in just fine, so the screen redraw is out of whack. When I zoom out to a certain level, notice it shapes up. It says, oh yes! I'm sorry. That's where your edge really is. Unfortunately, when you zoom back in, it gets it wrong again. So, that's a little bit of a problem. We'll take care of it in a moment, but for now, we're just going to abide. I need to move this path outline over a little bit. I don't know what yours looks like, but mine is too far over to the left. So, I'm going to press the arrow key a couple of times to nudge it to the right like so, and then I'll zoom back out.

It looks like we've got this guy pretty much in the right position. We can always adjust that later once we get things roughed in a little bit, if we need to take that edge farther inward. Okay, what about this edge right there? Well, that remaining area from about here to about here is more or less a straight line, actually. So, I'm going to try to render it out using a rotated rectangle, which means it's going to require another transformation, which means we can anticipate further screen redraw issues.

But as I say, we'll take care of that momentarily. All right, so I'll switch over to the Rectangle tool, and then I'll just draw me a rectangle. It doesn't matter where it is, because it's nowhere near right. It should be set to Subtract though, which it is, so everything's good there. We're further subtracting from the shapes. I'll go back to my Black Arrow tool. I'll click on that rectangle in order to select it, and then I'll move it into position right there. It's that intersection that I'm looking for, I think. I think this is going to work out for us. Actually, it could be a little lower, couldn't it? I guess I'm going from the wrong area, I guess about right there is where the light bulb starts cutting away from that circle.

So that's what we want them at. We essentially want to create a straight edge that's tangent. In the case you don't know what tangent means, imagine that you have a straight line resting on a ball. That would be a tangent line, because it's just sitting on the ball, and the line is straight. So it's barely touching the circle of the ball. Anyway, it's right there. It'll cleave off of that circle and then meet onto that circle there. We're going to do that using, of course, the transformation. Now, you'll just have to take my word for it. This rectangle is still the same, because we can't see the corner points right now.

I'm going to press Ctrl+T or Cmd+T on the Mac to re-invoke that Free Transform command. I'm going to move my transformation origin right there, and then I'll move my cursor outside the rectangle and drag in order to rotate it until it comes into position at that location. So, this is a good tangent line, it looks to me. It just barely touches the top circle, and it just barely touches the bottom circle. Now, it goes too far. It cuts into the light bulb down right here, but I'm unconcerned with that because we can move the rectangle to a different location.

So, I'm going to press the Enter key or the Return key on the Mac, and watch in disappointment and horror, as the screen does not redraw properly. All right, anyway, I'm now going to move my shape upward, because I still have the Black Arrow tool selected. I'll move it to about there, so that we still have a nice tangent edge, and lo and behold we still have a little bit of an issue up here. Now that's not Photoshop's problem. That's not a redraw problem. That's my problem. I need to solve it. I'm going to do so by transforming a shape, and I'll show you which shape it is that we're going to transform, as well as show you how to go about flipping and duplicating these shapes over here on the left-hand side in order to cut away this region on the right- hand side, in the next exercise.

Show transcript

#### This video is part of

Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery

192 video lessons · 43836 viewers

Author

Expand all | Collapse all
1. ### Introduction

40m 45s
1. Welcome
2m 45s
2. Making Photoshop your default image editor
7m 43s
3. Installing the dekeKeys keyboard shortcuts
8m 10s
4. Remapping OS shortcuts
7m 37s
5. Installing the Best Workflow color settings
4m 31s
6. The color settings explained
6m 54s
3m 5s
2. ### 25. What Photoshop Can Do, Pt. 3: The Face Paint

1h 11m
1. Your creative range continues to expand
1m 46s
2. The Avatar project so far
2m 38s
3. Painting on a photograph
7m 50s
6m 14s
5. Simulating chalky white paint
7m 23s
6. Masking and placing an image
7m 20s
7. Upsampling and Lens Blur
5m 9s
8. Blending blurry elements
3m 48s
9. Making a Smart Object
6m 46s
10. Placing an image as a Smart Object
3m 22s
11. Blending away a background
5m 56s
12. Applying Smart Filters
4m 34s
13. Creating a glow with Lens Flare
3m 45s
14. Blending and masking a glow
5m 3s

1h 26m
1. Using the image to select itself
1m 53s
6m 32s
3. Making an alpha channel
6m 54s
4. Using the Calculations command
6m 48s
5. Add, Subtract, Offset, and Scale
5m 54s
6. Prepping an image with the Dodge tool
6m 55s
7. Fixing mistakes before they get too big
6m 32s
8. Painting in the Overlay mode
5m 51s
9. Exaggerating and selecting flesh tones
7m 39s
10. Smudge, Median, and the Blur tool
6m 59s
6m 7s
5m 45s
13. Masking and compositing the foreground
5m 27s
14. Finessing the final composition
7m 39s
4. ### 27. Everything About the Pen Tool

2h 24m
1. Connecting the dots
1m 40s
2. The Pen tool and the Paths panel
6m 32s
3. Drawing a straight-sided outline
6m 25s
4. Editing a path outline
6m 36s
5. Adding and editing smooth points
5m 35s
6. Creating vector masks with the shape tools
4m 59s
7. Building a complex outline from shapes
4m 26s
8. Subtracting and transforming shapes
6m 45s
9. Cloning, flipping, and combining shapes
8m 58s
10. Roughing in non-symmetrical paths
7m 41s
11. Finessing a complex outline
9m 15s
8m 26s
13. Isolating an image element
6m 8s
14. Smooth points and control handles
9m 3s
15. Stretching curved segments
7m 49s
16. Using the Rubber Band option
9m 33s
17. Drawing smooth points with the Pen tool
6m 59s
3m 45s
19. Drawing cusp points
7m 14s
20. Setting points in the pasteboard
9m 57s
21. Using the Convert Point tool
6m 42s
5. ### 28. Blend Modes Revealed

2h 57m
1. Everything you need to know about blending
1m 45s
2. Photoshop CS5's blend modes
7m 21s
3. Cycling between blend modes
6m 15s
4. Darken and Lighten and their derivatives
6m 3s
5. The blend mode shortcuts
8m 6s
6. The Multiply and Burn modes
4m 28s
7. The Screen and Dodge modes
6m 0s
8. How opposite blend modes work
8m 24s
9. Why Multiply darkens and Divide lightens
5m 23s
10. Cleaning up a client's bad art
5m 3s
11. Dropping out a white background
5m 56s
12. Blending inside blend modes
8m 3s
13. Overlay, Soft Light, and Hard Light
6m 26s
14. Vivid, Linear, and Pin Light (and Hard Mix)
6m 35s
15. Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide
7m 34s
16. Great uses for the Difference mode
6m 18s
17. Promising uses for the Divide mode
9m 6s
18. Hue, Saturation, Color, and Luminosity
7m 0s
19. Blending an inverted layer
3m 32s
20. The "Fill Opacity Eight"
7m 25s
21. Making bad blend modes good
5m 16s
22. Making a knockout layer
6m 53s
23. Blending in the CMYK mode
8m 3s
24. Overprinting black text
8m 29s
25. Using the Luminance slider
5m 24s
6m 21s
27. Adjusting the behavior of luminance effects
10m 8s
6. ### 29. The Power of Smart Objects

2h 2m
1. Smart Objects = protective containers
1m 35s
2. Placing an Illustrator graphic
6m 30s
3. Vector copy and paste options
6m 56s
4. Applying Puppet Warp to vectors
8m 9s
5. "Gluing" vector art for Puppet Warp
5m 50s
6. Warping art onto the surface of an image
8m 7s
7. Blending a Smart Object
4m 30s
8. Blurring and blending a Smart Object
6m 8s
9. Making changes in Illustrator
5m 57s
10. Creating "true clones"
7m 18s
11. Double-flipping text
4m 44s
12. Applying effects to multiple layers
3m 24s
13. Updating true clones in one operation
7m 36s
14. Editing JPEGs as Camera Raw objects
5m 49s
15. Creating a double-exposure effect
7m 15s
7m 47s
17. Applying and repeating Camera Raw edits
6m 9s
18. Copying vs. cloning a Smart Object
5m 18s
19. Flipping a Smart Object and its mask
3m 42s
20. Adjusting multiple Camera Raw clones
3m 53s
21. Text that inverts everything behind it
5m 34s
7. ### 30. Nondestructive Smart Filters

1h 59m
1. This time, "smart" means dynamic
1m 37s
2. Introducing Smart Filters
6m 28s
5m 17s
4. Smart High Pass in the Lab mode
7m 57s
5. Sharpening a high-frequency image
7m 46s
6. Retroactively reducing noise
7m 31s
7. Which filters are Smart Filters?
6m 20s
8. Shadows/Highlights as a Smart Filter
4m 37s
9. Nesting one Smart Object inside another
7m 11s
10. Drawing a mask from a nested Smart Object
8m 7s
9m 16s
12. Tempering saturation values in Lab
7m 0s
13. Filtering live, editable text
9m 2s
14. Enhancing filters with layer effects
4m 33s
15. Applying a filter multiple times
5m 0s
16. Creating a synthetic star field
7m 7s
17. Making a stucco or drywall pattern
6m 28s
18. Land, sea, and clouds
8m 30s
8. ### 31. The Bristle and Mixer Brushes

2h 50m
2m 3s
2. Canvas texture and brush libraries
6m 40s
3. Painting with a predefined custom brush
9m 21s
4. Dissecting a custom brush
11m 9s
5. Designing and using a custom brush
4m 54s
5m 27s
7. The ten styles of bristle brushes
9m 47s
8. Size, Spacing, and Angle
7m 2s
9. Using the Bristle Brush preview
7m 53s
10. Bristles, Length, Thickness, and Stiffness
6m 53s
11. Stylus tilt and mouse behavior
5m 25s
12. Stroking a path outline with a brush
4m 0s
13. Troubleshooting a stylus
5m 49s
14. Introducing the Mixer Brush
7m 22s
15. The Load, Mix, and Wet values
5m 1s
6m 26s
17. Shading a piece of graphic art
6m 34s
7m 53s
19. Mixing a photographic portrait
6m 11s
20. Tracing the fine details in an image
5m 52s
21. Crosshatching and brush size
5m 53s
22. Covering up and augmenting details
7m 36s
23. Painting in hair and fabric
5m 54s
24. Painting and scaling very fine hairs
8m 7s
25. Adding texture with the Emboss filter
8m 31s
26. Exploiting a "happy accident"
2m 46s
9. ### 32. Auto-Align, Auto-Blend, and Photomerge

1h 40m
1. Artificial intelligence that works
1m 22s
2. The Auto-Align Layers command
7m 25s
3. The Auto-Blend Layers command
3m 54s
4m 50s
5. The Geometric Distortion setting
6m 44s
6. The Seamless Tones and Colors checkbox
4m 8s
7. Creating the best possible layer mask
9m 18s
8. Auto-blending depths of field
5m 54s
6m 29s
10. Shooting and downsampling panorama images
5m 54s
11. Introducing the Photomerge command
6m 40s
12. Evaluating the Layout settings
6m 47s
5m 36s
14. Tracing and extracting seams
7m 18s
5m 55s
16. Simplifying and correcting a panorama
5m 58s
17. Smart Filters and nondestructive cropping
6m 43s
10. ### 33. High Dynamic Range (HDR Pro)

1h 18m
1. The most mysterious of mysterious topics
2m 29s
2. Introducing HDR Toning
6m 43s
3. Reigning in clipped highlights
5m 54s
9m 5s
5. Nondestructive editing with HDR Toning
8m 22s
6. Using the HDR Toning Curve
7m 2s
6m 0s
8. Merging multiple exposures
7m 14s
9. A first look at HDR Pro
6m 24s
10. Removing ghosts, correcting backlighting
7m 11s
11. Generating and editing an HDR comp
7m 0s
12. HDR rendered to completion
5m 19s
11. ### 34. Actions and Batch Processing

1h 27m
1. Processing hundreds of files in no time
1m 43s
2. Creating an action set
6m 37s
3. Making an action
7m 7s
4. Stop, Delete, and Record
7m 12s
6m 40s
6. Playing and testing an action
6m 31s
7. Playing and editing a specific operation
6m 39s
8. Permitting the user to change settings
4m 58s
9. Explaining an action with a custom stop
5m 0s
10. Batch-processing multiple images
7m 22s
11. Adding a Save As operation
6m 34s
12. Creating an action to save web graphics
7m 59s
13. Batching two actions into one
7m 15s
5m 30s

1m 19s
1. See ya
1m 19s

### Start learning today

Sometimes @lynda teaches me how to use a program and sometimes Lynda.com changes my life forever. @JosefShutter
@lynda lynda.com is an absolute life saver when it comes to learning todays software. Definitely recommend it! #higherlearning @Michael_Caraway
@lynda The best thing online! Your database of courses is great! To the mark and very helpful. Thanks! @ru22more
Got to create something yesterday I never thought I could do. #thanks @lynda @Ngventurella
I really do love @lynda as a learning platform. Never stop learning and developing, it’s probably our greatest gift as a species! @soundslikedavid
@lynda just subscribed to lynda.com all I can say its brilliant join now trust me @ButchSamurai
@lynda is an awesome resource. The membership is priceless if you take advantage of it. @diabetic_techie
One of the best decision I made this year. Buy a 1yr subscription to @lynda @cybercaptive
guys lynda.com (@lynda) is the best. So far I’ve learned Java, principles of OO programming, and now learning about MS project @lucasmitchell
Signed back up to @lynda dot com. I’ve missed it!! Proper geeking out right now! #timetolearn #geek @JayGodbold
Share a link to this course

### What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

### Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.

Exercise files

How to use exercise files.

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.

Congratulations

You have completed Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery.

Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

How to use exercise files.

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferencesfrom the dropdown menu.

• Mark video as unwatched
• Mark ALL videos as unwatched
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

## Are you sure you want to delete this note?

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.

• new course releases
• general communications
• special notices

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

• new course releases