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In this exercise I'm going to demonstrate the best of the lightening modes, which include Screen and the two Dodge modes. Now these modes are for all intents and purposes the exact opposites of Multiply, and the two Burn modes. I'll demonstrate what I mean by that in the next exercise. But first, I want you to get a sense of how Screen and the Dodge modes work. So I'm a still working inside Paper pushers.psd. My only change so far has been to set the wrestlers' layer to Linear Burn. You know what, I'm going to set it to Multiply by pressing Shift+Alt+M or Shift+Option+M on the Mac, because we're going to bring this layer back, before we're done with the exercise.
But for now, I'm going to turn it off. Now I'll twirl open the future stuff group here, and scroll down to the bottom. You'll see that there is this layer called bright to dark. It's an invert adjustment layer. I'll turn it on. Sure enough, it goes ahead and inverts the luminance levels in the parchment, so it becomes very dark. We're inverting the colors as well. So what was formerly a kind of bright orange is turned into a deep blue. Then I'm going to go ahead and collapse my Color panel, so I've a little more room to work. I'll turn on this stars layer. This is a completely synthetic effect by the way that I created using a combination of Add Noise, Gaussian blur, a little bit of Levels, and the Lens Flare filter.
We'll take a look at how it creates these effects, because if nothing else, there is an awful lot of fun, when we examine smart filters in the future chapter. But for now, I'm going to use this layer to demonstrate the lightning modes. So I'm going to click on the stars layer. Let's go and switch it to the first lightening mode, the one that's not really all that good, Lighten. Notice that sure enough, we get that on and off proposition that I was telling you about. That is, either a pixel is lighter than those below it, and you can see it, or it's not on a channel by channel basis, and you don't see it.
Because of this channel by channel calculation, we get a little bit of color interaction going on. We also get a lot of flattening. That is, whole regions of the image start to look kind of murky, like right about there. That's not what we want. We want a continuous bright glow effect. So we want to switch to the next blend mode, the best of the lightning modes. That's this guy right there, Screen. It goes ahead and creates this continuous brightening effect. So every color inside of the layer, except black has some degree of lightning associated with it.
The very light colors lighten a lot; the very dark colors don't lighten so much. If you want a real-world analogy for this guy, think of it this way. Imagine that you took the synthetic stars, and you printed them out to a 35 millimeter slide, let's say. Then you took that inverted blue parchment in the background. You printed it to another 35 millimeter slide. Then take both of the slides, and put them in separate projectors. Then shine both projectors at the same screen. So you start in a very dark room with a black screen, then, you fire on one of the projectors, and it ends up looking like this.
Then you fire up the second projector, and it ends up looking like this, because we're incrementally brightening the scene. So that's how the Screen mode works. It is a fantastic mode used throughout Photoshop. It's the default mode for the Inner and Outer Glow effects. All right, so what if that's too much for you? If you want to back it off a little bit, you'll press the number key to reduce the opacity. In this case, I just press 7 for Opacity of 70%. Obviously, that's too subtle. So I'll press 0 to get a 100% once again.
If you want a more emphatic effect, you can switch to one of the Dodge modes. They are analogous in their behavior to the Burn modes that we saw in the previous exercise. That is, Color Dodge does add some emphasis, but it also adds a ton of saturation. Then Linear Dodge settles down on the saturation front, and gives you a more emphatic effect. So let's see those. I'll press Shift+Plus, so that's Color Dodge. It actually backs off the effect in many ways. Although, I think it produces some interesting highlights here and there, we can see the stars burrowing into the background.
So the star transitions are sharper than they were before, but we are losing some of the brightness here and there inside of our image. We're also gaining a ton of saturation right there around that central corona. Now I don't tend to use Color Dodge very often for obvious reasons I think. Instead, what I'll do, if Screen isn't enough, I'll switch it up to Linear Dodge. That's what Linear Dodge looks like. So I just went ahead and pressed Shift+Plus to advance the mode. We get this extremely emphatic effect right here.
So let's go ahead and compare and contrast for a moment. If I press Shift+Alt+S, or Shift+Option+S on the Mac for the Screen mode, we get this nice bright continuous lightening effect. But let's say what I'm really looking for is an effect that's so bright, that it makes your eyes stings, so that you have specular highlight as if you're looking directly into the sun. In that case, I will press Shift+Alt+W. Remember, that's for a two upside down As in a row; Shift+Alt+W or Shift+Option+W on a Mac in order to achieve this effect here.
Now I do want to say something about this. Notice that the mode is called Linear Dodge, and then in parentheses (Add). You may wonder why that is. It's the only blend mode that has a parenthetical. Here is the story. Back in the old days, back before layers, we had the Calculations command. It offered in Add and Subtract mode. Then for some legal reasons, Adobe couldn't use Add in the context with Layers panel. So once layers were introduced, then we started to get blend modes. Once an Add mode did appear, it went by the name Linear Dodge instead. Then when that fracas blew over, Adobe decided to acknowledge that the modes were one at the same.
So it now calls the mode Linear Dodge, and then in parentheses (Add). So there is that story in case you care. Anyway, I'm going to go ahead and scroll out. Listen, I'm going to turn on the wrestlers' layer as well, so that we have this blend of Multiply and Linear Dodge working together. Now they're no longer fighting. They're deliriously in love, as indicated by the fairy dust emitting from their conjoined hands. In the next exercise, I'm going to demonstrate in no uncertain terms, why Multiply and the Burn modes are exact opposites of Screen and the Dodge modes.
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