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In this movie, I'll show you how to adjust the amount of space between neighboring characters of type. Using a couple of formatting attributes, known as kerning. Which is spelled k-e-r-n-i-n-g. And tracking. And if your unfamiliar with this topic, it's going to seem pretty nit picky. However it becomes extremely important when working with large text such as headlines. And in particular, logos. So, I'm going to start things off by zooming in on my text, here. And you can see that I have the Rectangular marquee tool selected. I'm going to go ahead and draw a rectangle around the six, like so.
And the reason I'm doing this, is to demonstrate how character spacing works inside just about every design program. The idea is that each and every character is defined by its font outline as well as some spacing information known as side bearing. So you've got the left bearing over here on the left-hand side, and the right bearing over here on the right-hand side. And so the distance between the three and the six is determined by the three's right bearing, along with the six's left bearing. And that keeps the characters from knocking together.
However, not all pairs of characters are created the same. I'm going to press Ctrl+D, or Cmd+D on a Mac in order to deselect my text. Then I'll go ahead and zoom out here, so that we can see, pretty much the full width of the image. And I'll press the T key in order to switch to the Type tool, and I'll click in front of the three, in order to set my blinking insertion marker. And I'll enter the classic pair of characters that need special attention, which is big A, little v. Like so. And also move my cursor down below the text.
And go ahead and drag it over, so that we can see all of the text on this layer. And I'll press the Enter key on the numerical keypad in order to accept my modifications. And I'll press the M key in order to once again switch to the Rectangular marquee tool. And notice now, if I were to draw a kind of boundary let's say around this capital A here. In order to indicate what is roughly it's basing information, that the v is violating the A's right bearing and the A is violating the v's left bearing and both of the bearings are violating each other. So, what in the world is going on? Well, I'll go ahead and press Ctrl+D or Cmd+D on the Mac in order to deselect the image again, I'll press the T key in order to switch to the Type tool and I'll click between the characters, and you can see just how much violation is going on, there.
And that's a function of what's known as kerning. In order to see what I'm talking about, I'll go up here to the Options bar and click on this little panel icon to bring up the character panel. Or, as long as I have some text active, that is I've got a blinking insertion marker or some highlighted text, I can press Ctrl+T. Or Cmd+T on a Mac, to bring up that same panel. That's T for text of course. And notice this VA icon right there so it's the same pair of characters just capitalized in a different order. And you can see that it sets the amount of kerning between the characters.
Right now, it's set to metrics. And what that means, is that Photoshop is looking into the font definition and finding the kerning information. So, every single font out there. Includes this table of pairs of characters that need custom spacing. This table is known as a kerning table, and the pairs are known as kerning pairs. And Av is one of them. But there may be hundreds, or even thousands of pairs, depending on the font. And by the way, just to give you a sense of how important this is I'll go ahead and switch this option from metrics to zero and that's going to go ahead ans spread the characters out so that Photoshop is just accepting the side bearing information which is pretty small for the A and actually cuts into the v a little bit.
And now I'll press the Enter key on the numercial keypad in order to accept that change, and you can see that we now have so much space between the a and the v. That they almost look like they're separate words. And its base it optically inconsistent with the amount of space between the v and the three and the three and the six and the six and the five. Alright, now that you understand what in the world kerning is, how do you go about customizing it? Cause you're not going to always like what Photoshop or any other design program comes up with. Well, I go up to the File menu and choose the Revert command in order to reinstate original text, and now I'm going to zoom in on it here and center it on the screen.
And I'll go ahead and double-click on 365 with the Type tool in order to select it, and then I'll press Ctrl+H or Cmd+H on a Mac. To hide that highlight there. And for my money, I'm seeing sort of inconsistencies between the amount of space between the three and the six and then the loser space, it seems to me, between the six and the five. And I kind of like to tighten things up, in general. Well, if you ever run into that, where the spacing just looks wrong, especially with big type, that's where you're going to really notice it, then go ahead and bring up that character panel once again.
As I say, when the text is selected, you can press Ctrl+T, or Cmd+T on a Mac, and then click on this down-pointing arrowhead and try switching from metrics Which obeys the information inside the font definition. Go ahead and switch it to optical instead, which applies Adobe's automatic optical kerning, so in other words, Photoshop goes ahead and actually reads the characters, and decides how to space them on the fly. And, as a result, it's going to customize the spacing between each and every character of type. Regardless of whether it's part of the kerning table or not. And in our case, we end up getting some tighter, and I think, better looking spacing.
However, I'd like to space these characters closer still, and if you want to control the spacing of multiple selected characters, as I have here, as opposed to specific pairs, then you move to this next value, which is the tracking value right there. Now, you can modify this value. You can select it, and dial in a value. And if you wanted to space the characters together, you would enter a negative value, for example, like negative 100. If you want to space them farther apart, then you'd enter a positive value such as positive 100.
The problem with working from the numbers like this, I'm going to go ahead and press the Escape key in order to restore that value to zero, is that it's a little tricky to understand what's going on here. This value is measured in thousandths of an em. And an em, em, is as wide as the type size. So, an em in the case of this text is 192 points Which we already know is a little confusing because how many pixels is that? You know, it's dependent upon the resolution. So it's hard to know what in the world negative 100 even means, but it's easy to glean whether your text is spaced correctly or not just by looking at it.
So the better way to work if you want to space your text is to press Alt+Right arrow. In order to spread the characters farther apart from each other, that would be option right arrow on a Mac, and each time you press a keyboard shortcut, for what it's worth, you're modifying the tracking value in 20,000th of an m, or you can press alt left arrow, or option left arrow on a mac in order to scoot the letters together. Again in 20 thousandths of an M. If you want to move the characters in five times that increment, so you really want to spread them apart or move them together, then you add the Ctrl key, or the Cmd key on a Mac.
So that'd be Ctrl+Alt+Right arrow on a PC, or Cmd+Option+Right arrow on a Mac. If you want to scoot the letters way together, than you press Ctrl+Alt+Left arrow or Cmd+Option+Left arrow on the Mac. Anyway, I ultimately want the characters to look something like this. So I came up with the tracking value of negative 20. Finally, it struck me that the space between the six and the five appears to be a little wider than the space between the three and the six. And so, if you want to adjust the space between just two characters, you click between them with the type tools, so you don't want to have any letters selected.
And then, you go ahead and you use those same keyboard shortcuts I showed you a moment ago. So if I want to scoot these two characters closer, I'd press Alt+Left arrow, or Option+Left arrow on a Mac. And that ends up giving me a kerning value of negative 43. Go figure, well I decided that was a little bit to much so I change that value to negative 30 instead. And then I'll press the Enter key, in order to accept that change. And then the Enter key on the numerical keypad, in order to escape the text edit mode. And that's how you adjust the amount of space between neighboring characters of type, using kerning, and tracking.
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