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Inversion, cancelation, and HSL

From: Photoshop Masking and Compositing: Advanced Blending

Video: Inversion, cancelation, and HSL

Let's take a look at the rest of the formulas beginning with the one for the first inversion mode, Difference. Difference uses subtract. So we're subtracting the luminance levels of the active layer from those of the background layer and then we find the absolute value. So in other words, the result is always positive no matter what and that's why we end up getting an inversion result is because the numbers bounce back essentially. The composite luminance levels end up growing ever darker and then they bounce back and become brighter again. Exclusion, which is a very similar mode, it looks a lot like difference except it has lower saturation values, there is a lot of graze in the composite image.

Inversion, cancelation, and HSL

Let's take a look at the rest of the formulas beginning with the one for the first inversion mode, Difference. Difference uses subtract. So we're subtracting the luminance levels of the active layer from those of the background layer and then we find the absolute value. So in other words, the result is always positive no matter what and that's why we end up getting an inversion result is because the numbers bounce back essentially. The composite luminance levels end up growing ever darker and then they bounce back and become brighter again. Exclusion, which is a very similar mode, it looks a lot like difference except it has lower saturation values, there is a lot of graze in the composite image.

It uses a completely different formula that's based on the screen formula. So we're taking A+B just as we do with screen and we're subtracting AxB which is that multiply, but then we're multiplying that multiply formula by 2 and that creates another kind of bounce back. So colors that are very different from each other become bright and colors that are very similar to each other become either gray or very dark. So the bright colors doubled back and again, we get an inversion effect.

Now these next two modes subtract and divide, they were introduced recently in Photoshop. However, they were actually already available inside the program, the variations on existing modes. So Subtract just goes ahead and subtracts A from B. That's it, but it turns that to be the same thing as inverting the active layer and applying the Linear Burn mode. And so as a result, it's very likely we'll get clipping. Divide goes ahead and divides the luminance levels on the active layer by those on the background and it's the same as inverting a layer and applying the Color Dodge mode.

So again, they're not unique modes, but they can be useful every so often, especially where masking is concerned. Then we've got the component modes; Hue, Saturation, Color, and Luminosity and they don't really have equations. They're just mixes of the various primary components that are going on between the active layer and the background layer. So in the case of Hue, we're keeping the Hue from the active layer and mixing it with the saturation and the luminance of the background layer. In the case of Saturation, we're keeping the saturation of the active layer and mixing it with the hue and the luminance of the background.

In the case of Color, we're keeping both the hue and the saturation of the active layer and mixing it with the luminance of the background. And in the case of Luminance, we do just the opposite. We mix the luminance of the active layer along with the hue and saturation of that background layer. And that's it, folks. That's how the underlying math works were blending is concerned inside Photoshop. It's a lot of stuff to know, I don't expect you to remember these formulas, but you can always come back to this document if you needed in the future and hopefully, knowing the mechanics of the mode will help you anticipate how they work as we employ the various blending options in future chapters.

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Image for Photoshop Masking and Compositing: Advanced Blending
 
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  1. 1m 43s
    1. Welcome
      1m 43s
  2. 33m 15s
    1. When in doubt, blend
      2m 20s
    2. Where to find blending options
      4m 10s
    3. 27 blend modes, 6 groups
      4m 23s
    4. Opacity vs. Fill Opacity
      4m 41s
    5. The "Fill Opacity Eight"
      4m 59s
    6. Blending adjustment layers
      4m 43s
    7. Blend mode shortcuts
      7m 59s
  3. 27m 3s
    1. The power of standardized arithmetic
      6m 58s
    2. Photoshop's blending formulas
      5m 27s
    3. Darken formulas vs. lighten formulas
      4m 15s
    4. Contrast mode formulas
      7m 28s
    5. Inversion, cancelation, and HSL
      2m 55s
  4. 17m 50s
    1. Normal mode vs. Dissolve mode
      2m 11s
    2. Making a dynamic Dissolve effect
      2m 21s
    3. Creating a Dissolve text effect
      4m 48s
    4. The Behind and Clear modes
      3m 2s
    5. Filling a stroke with Behind and Clear
      5m 28s
  5. 43m 24s
    1. Darken vs. Darken Color
      4m 25s
    2. Creating filter effects with Darken
      5m 0s
    3. The Multiply and Burn modes
      6m 27s
    4. Cleaning up scanned line art
      7m 30s
    5. Comping line art against a photo
      5m 12s
    6. Colorizing comped line art
      5m 14s
    7. Masking with a darken mode
      3m 59s
    8. Refining a mask with Multiply
      5m 37s
  6. 33m 36s
    1. Lighten vs. Lighter Color
      2m 29s
    2. Creating filter effects with Lighten
      2m 47s
    3. The Screen and Dodge modes
      4m 35s
    4. Blending white type, darkening shadows
      3m 2s
    5. Creating a classic double-exposure effect
      3m 49s
    6. Making dark line art bright
      5m 11s
    7. Masking with a lighten mode
      5m 4s
    8. Refine, filter, and blend
      6m 39s
  7. 35m 18s
    1. Overlay, Soft Light, and Hard Light
      5m 2s
    2. Vivid, Linear, and Pin Light
      4m 2s
    3. The amazing Hard Mix mode
      3m 51s
    4. Two variations on a single mode
      5m 37s
    5. Adding clarity with a contrast mode
      4m 9s
    6. Creating a glowing, soft-focus effect
      3m 38s
    7. Blending an image with a paper texture
      4m 11s
    8. Turning flesh into stone
      4m 48s
  8. 18m 10s
    1. Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide
      7m 7s
    2. Comparing seemingly identical images
      3m 25s
    3. Creating type that inverts any background
      3m 30s
    4. Making inversion type black and white
      4m 8s
  9. 16m 57s
    1. Luminosity, Color, Hue, and Saturation
      3m 29s
    2. Colorizing artwork with layers
      7m 24s
    3. Correcting skin tones with Hue
      6m 4s
  10. 14m 57s
    1. Using the This Layer slider option
      6m 44s
    2. Using the Underlying Layer slider option
      3m 16s
    3. Achieving greater control with Blend If
      4m 57s
  11. 48s
    1. Next steps
      48s

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