Easy-to-follow video tutorials help you learn software, creative, and business skills.Become a member

Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide

From: Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery

Video: Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide

In this exercise, I am going to demonstrate the two Inversion modes; Difference and Exclusion. I'll also show you the two new modes inside of Photoshop, Subtract and Divide, which I am calling for lack of a better term, the Cancellation modes. We will also see how they're not necessarily all that new. They are, in fact, variations on blend modes that we already had. So, I'm working inside Bright shining light.psd and I want you to get a careful look at this image here, just remember it, because we'll be coming back to it in an unexpected way in just a few moments.

Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide

In this exercise, I am going to demonstrate the two Inversion modes; Difference and Exclusion. I'll also show you the two new modes inside of Photoshop, Subtract and Divide, which I am calling for lack of a better term, the Cancellation modes. We will also see how they're not necessarily all that new. They are, in fact, variations on blend modes that we already had. So, I'm working inside Bright shining light.psd and I want you to get a careful look at this image here, just remember it, because we'll be coming back to it in an unexpected way in just a few moments.

But I have the wrestlers layer active and it's set to the Linear Burn mode. I am going to go ahead and change that mode to Difference. Difference produces as kind of psychedelic effect, it's actually extremely useful and I'm going to be showing you a practical application of it. But first, I want you to understand how it works. It's like the Subtract mode, in that it subtracts a pixel in the Active layer from an equivalent pixel in the composite view below. So that equation is basically B-A, just as it is with the Subtract mode. The difference is that you're taking the absolute value that is the subtraction never produces a negative number.

If it does, it just passed back up and becomes positive again. So difference will start by reducing the luminance of the image and then it will pop back up and increase the luminance once again. So you get these trippy inversion effects. The great thing is that it's a selective inversion. So Black doesn't invert at all which is why the black of the clothing is not performing an inversion. If I turn off the wrestlers layer, this is what the background parchment looks like. So it's bright, it's orange. When we turn on wrestlers, it remains bright and orange inside of their clothing and then it inverts in the white background.

So white inverts absolutely; all the other luminance levels invert based on their brightness on a channel-by-channel basis. So if you want to produce more normalized effect, you'd go ahead and invert the layer itself and you can do that if you're working along with me just by turning on this Invert Adjustment layer. Because it's clipped to the wrestlers layer, the default behavior inside of Photoshop is that the inversion happens first and then the blend mode is assigned. So when I turn this layer on, we can't see the effect applied to the thumbnail. But what we now have is white clothing and a black background, so the background is no longer inverting the parchment below it, but the clothing is, because it actually appears white to the blend mode.

All right, so as I say very useful mode for figuring out the differences between images, I will show you what that means coming right up. Now one more thing you should know is that similar colors cancel each other out. So if the Difference mode finds a blue pixel on the active layer and a blue pixel on the layers below, then it goes ahead and produces black. If you would rather produce gray instead, then you can switch to the next mode. That's the only real difference between these two, is exclusion is going to produce gray instead of black where similar colors are encountered. Otherwise, pretty much everything I told you applies; the luminance levels are inverting each other on a channel-by-channel basis.

If you want to see what this looks like without the invert layer then just go ahead and turn it off and we end up getting this effect here, and again, this is the Difference mode right there. A darker mode has punchier shadows and this is the exclusion mode which has a lighter touch to it. All right, here is the Subtract mode right there and Subtract goes ahead and does the same thing as Difference, except without the absolute value. So black isn't going to do anything because subtracting 0 results in the same color you have before. White is going to do a real number on the luminance because when you subtract white, since it's the biggest color there, you are going to wipe out any of your other luminance levels and that's certainly what's happening in the background here.

So just by way of a comparison, if I press Shift+Alt+E or Shift+Option+E on the Mac, that takes us to the Difference mode and what we're really seeing a difference between Difference and Subtract is in that dark background that brightens up considerably. All right, I am going to press Ctrl+Z or Command+Z on the Mac to return to the Subtract mode because it does not have a keyboard shortcut. I am going to turn on this invert layer so we can see what happens, when we subtract an inverted version of the image and we end up getting this amazingly familiar effect right here. In fact, now, I just want you to notice, this wrestlers is set to Subtract, so we can see this Subtract mode and the invert layer is turned on.

I am going to go up to the File menu and choose the Revert command to revert back to the Linear Burn version of the image and it's exactly the same. We did not see a single pixel change there inside the image window and yet, the wrestlers layer is now set to Linear Burn and the invert layer is turned off. Well, to confirm that's what really happened that we aren't seeing any difference, let's check out the math because whatever you think of the math, it never lies. I am going to go ahead and twirl up the text elements layer and turn on the blend math layer, scroll down a little bit, and notice, Linear Burn right there, is A+B-1.

That doesn't sound much like B-A, which is this subtract equation, but watch this. I'll go ahead and get my Type tool and edit this layer for you. I am going to enter an equal sign because ultimately, the two will be equal, and I am going to say B-A because that's the equation for subtract. But when you invert the A layer, it turns into this, in parentheses 1-A and end parentheses like that ((1-A)). So it's B minus the product 1 minus A (B-(1-A)) and if you go ahead and spin that math out, why then you get minus minus for A, those two cancel each other out so you get a positive A. The B was already positive so it's A+B and then minus is assigned to the 1 gives us a -1.

So they are in fact exactly the same operations. Subtracting an inverted layer produces the exact same effect as not inverting the layer and assigning the Linear Burn mode. We also have something that's resembling a Divide mode right over here in the case of Color Dodge. Notice we have B/(1-A). Well, the equation for the Divide mode which we we're about to see is just B/A. So, if we invert that A, we are going to get the same effect as Color Dodge.

Let's go ahead and prove that to be true here. I am going to twirl close the text elements group just so that I can get to some of my other layers here. Now I'll go ahead and set up the scene a little bit. I'll twirl open future stuff and I'll turn on bright to dark, so that we're darkening up the background layer and then I'll twirl that closed once again. Let's select the wrestlers layer and I am going to go ahead and change that blend mode to Color Dodge right there because this is the one that's B/(1-A), and we get this effect and I like it better if it's inverted. So we'll go ahead and turn on Inversion for this effect, like so, and I will save off this effect as a layer Comp.

I will go ahead and click on the Page icon and I'll call this Inverted Color Dodge like so, just so we can keep track of it. Actually Inverted, pardon me; I'll go ahead and enter an ed. Make sure Appearance is turned on that's important. So we save those Blend modes. Click OK. All right, now I am going to change the Blend mode for wrestlers from Color Dodge all the way down here to Divide. Then I am going to turn the Inversion off and we have that exact same effect. Just to confirm that it is exactly the effect we had ten seconds ago, I will click in front of Inverted Color Dodge and notice nothing changed onscreen whatsoever.

So I was working free and easily with the inversion; I ended up inverting both the layers as I was applying the operation, but that's a pretty easy thing to do that's something you can do to change the balance of power where these various blended layers are concerned. All right, so that gives you a sense of what to expect from these Blend modes. In the next exercise, I am going to show you a very practical application of Difference.

Show transcript

This video is part of

Image for Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery
Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery

192 video lessons · 43875 viewers

Deke McClelland
Author

 
Expand all | Collapse all
  1. 40m 45s
    1. Welcome
      2m 45s
    2. Making Photoshop your default image editor
      7m 43s
    3. Installing the dekeKeys keyboard shortcuts
      8m 10s
    4. Remapping OS shortcuts
      7m 37s
    5. Installing the Best Workflow color settings
      4m 31s
    6. The color settings explained
      6m 54s
    7. Loading the CS5 color settings in Bridge
      3m 5s
  2. 1h 11m
    1. Your creative range continues to expand
      1m 46s
    2. The Avatar project so far
      2m 38s
    3. Painting on a photograph
      7m 50s
    4. Adding texture and depth
      6m 14s
    5. Simulating chalky white paint
      7m 23s
    6. Masking and placing an image
      7m 20s
    7. Upsampling and Lens Blur
      5m 9s
    8. Blending blurry elements
      3m 48s
    9. Making a Smart Object
      6m 46s
    10. Placing an image as a Smart Object
      3m 22s
    11. Blending away a background
      5m 56s
    12. Applying Smart Filters
      4m 34s
    13. Creating a glow with Lens Flare
      3m 45s
    14. Blending and masking a glow
      5m 3s
  3. 1h 26m
    1. Using the image to select itself
      1m 53s
    2. Introducing masking
      6m 32s
    3. Making an alpha channel
      6m 54s
    4. Using the Calculations command
      6m 48s
    5. Add, Subtract, Offset, and Scale
      5m 54s
    6. Prepping an image with the Dodge tool
      6m 55s
    7. Fixing mistakes before they get too big
      6m 32s
    8. Painting in the Overlay mode
      5m 51s
    9. Exaggerating and selecting flesh tones
      7m 39s
    10. Smudge, Median, and the Blur tool
      6m 59s
    11. Masking low-contrast details
      6m 7s
    12. Creating a flesh-and-clothing mask
      5m 45s
    13. Masking and compositing the foreground
      5m 27s
    14. Finessing the final composition
      7m 39s
  4. 2h 24m
    1. Connecting the dots
      1m 40s
    2. The Pen tool and the Paths panel
      6m 32s
    3. Drawing a straight-sided outline
      6m 25s
    4. Editing a path outline
      6m 36s
    5. Adding and editing smooth points
      5m 35s
    6. Creating vector masks with the shape tools
      4m 59s
    7. Building a complex outline from shapes
      4m 26s
    8. Subtracting and transforming shapes
      6m 45s
    9. Cloning, flipping, and combining shapes
      8m 58s
    10. Roughing in non-symmetrical paths
      7m 41s
    11. Finessing a complex outline
      9m 15s
    12. Masking a layer effect
      8m 26s
    13. Isolating an image element
      6m 8s
    14. Smooth points and control handles
      9m 3s
    15. Stretching curved segments
      7m 49s
    16. Using the Rubber Band option
      9m 33s
    17. Drawing smooth points with the Pen tool
      6m 59s
    18. Shading an isolated object
      3m 45s
    19. Drawing cusp points
      7m 14s
    20. Setting points in the pasteboard
      9m 57s
    21. Using the Convert Point tool
      6m 42s
  5. 2h 57m
    1. Everything you need to know about blending
      1m 45s
    2. Photoshop CS5's blend modes
      7m 21s
    3. Cycling between blend modes
      6m 15s
    4. Darken and Lighten and their derivatives
      6m 3s
    5. The blend mode shortcuts
      8m 6s
    6. The Multiply and Burn modes
      4m 28s
    7. The Screen and Dodge modes
      6m 0s
    8. How opposite blend modes work
      8m 24s
    9. Why Multiply darkens and Divide lightens
      5m 23s
    10. Cleaning up a client's bad art
      5m 3s
    11. Dropping out a white background
      5m 56s
    12. Blending inside blend modes
      8m 3s
    13. Overlay, Soft Light, and Hard Light
      6m 26s
    14. Vivid, Linear, and Pin Light (and Hard Mix)
      6m 35s
    15. Difference, Exclusion, Subtract, and Divide
      7m 34s
    16. Great uses for the Difference mode
      6m 18s
    17. Promising uses for the Divide mode
      9m 6s
    18. Hue, Saturation, Color, and Luminosity
      7m 0s
    19. Blending an inverted layer
      3m 32s
    20. The "Fill Opacity Eight"
      7m 25s
    21. Making bad blend modes good
      5m 16s
    22. Making a knockout layer
      6m 53s
    23. Blending in the CMYK mode
      8m 3s
    24. Overprinting black text
      8m 29s
    25. Using the Luminance slider
      5m 24s
    26. Parametric luminance masking
      6m 21s
    27. Adjusting the behavior of luminance effects
      10m 8s
  6. 2h 2m
    1. Smart Objects = protective containers
      1m 35s
    2. Placing an Illustrator graphic
      6m 30s
    3. Vector copy and paste options
      6m 56s
    4. Applying Puppet Warp to vectors
      8m 9s
    5. "Gluing" vector art for Puppet Warp
      5m 50s
    6. Warping art onto the surface of an image
      8m 7s
    7. Blending a Smart Object
      4m 30s
    8. Blurring and blending a Smart Object
      6m 8s
    9. Making changes in Illustrator
      5m 57s
    10. Creating "true clones"
      7m 18s
    11. Double-flipping text
      4m 44s
    12. Applying effects to multiple layers
      3m 24s
    13. Updating true clones in one operation
      7m 36s
    14. Editing JPEGs as Camera Raw objects
      5m 49s
    15. Creating a double-exposure effect
      7m 15s
    16. Masking and shading transitions
      7m 47s
    17. Applying and repeating Camera Raw edits
      6m 9s
    18. Copying vs. cloning a Smart Object
      5m 18s
    19. Flipping a Smart Object and its mask
      3m 42s
    20. Adjusting multiple Camera Raw clones
      3m 53s
    21. Text that inverts everything behind it
      5m 34s
  7. 1h 59m
    1. This time, "smart" means dynamic
      1m 37s
    2. Introducing Smart Filters
      6m 28s
    3. Traditional High Pass sharpening
      5m 17s
    4. Smart High Pass in the Lab mode
      7m 57s
    5. Sharpening a high-frequency image
      7m 46s
    6. Retroactively reducing noise
      7m 31s
    7. Which filters are Smart Filters?
      6m 20s
    8. Shadows/Highlights as a Smart Filter
      4m 37s
    9. Nesting one Smart Object inside another
      7m 11s
    10. Drawing a mask from a nested Smart Object
      8m 7s
    11. Better Shadows/Highlights inside Lab
      9m 16s
    12. Tempering saturation values in Lab
      7m 0s
    13. Filtering live, editable text
      9m 2s
    14. Enhancing filters with layer effects
      4m 33s
    15. Applying a filter multiple times
      5m 0s
    16. Creating a synthetic star field
      7m 7s
    17. Making a stucco or drywall pattern
      6m 28s
    18. Land, sea, and clouds
      8m 30s
  8. 2h 50m
    1. Photoshop's advanced painting tools
      2m 3s
    2. Canvas texture and brush libraries
      6m 40s
    3. Painting with a predefined custom brush
      9m 21s
    4. Dissecting a custom brush
      11m 9s
    5. Designing and using a custom brush
      4m 54s
    6. Saving and loading brush presets
      5m 27s
    7. The ten styles of bristle brushes
      9m 47s
    8. Size, Spacing, and Angle
      7m 2s
    9. Using the Bristle Brush preview
      7m 53s
    10. Bristles, Length, Thickness, and Stiffness
      6m 53s
    11. Stylus tilt and mouse behavior
      5m 25s
    12. Stroking a path outline with a brush
      4m 0s
    13. Troubleshooting a stylus
      5m 49s
    14. Introducing the Mixer Brush
      7m 22s
    15. The Load, Mix, and Wet values
      5m 1s
    16. Cleaning and loading a brush
      6m 26s
    17. Shading a piece of graphic art
      6m 34s
    18. Shading with color
      7m 53s
    19. Mixing a photographic portrait
      6m 11s
    20. Tracing the fine details in an image
      5m 52s
    21. Crosshatching and brush size
      5m 53s
    22. Covering up and augmenting details
      7m 36s
    23. Painting in hair and fabric
      5m 54s
    24. Painting and scaling very fine hairs
      8m 7s
    25. Adding texture with the Emboss filter
      8m 31s
    26. Exploiting a "happy accident"
      2m 46s
  9. 1h 40m
    1. Artificial intelligence that works
      1m 22s
    2. The Auto-Align Layers command
      7m 25s
    3. The Auto-Blend Layers command
      3m 54s
    4. Masking auto-aligned layers
      4m 50s
    5. The Geometric Distortion setting
      6m 44s
    6. The Seamless Tones and Colors checkbox
      4m 8s
    7. Creating the best possible layer mask
      9m 18s
    8. Auto-blending depths of field
      5m 54s
    9. Finessing masks, accepting imperfections
      6m 29s
    10. Shooting and downsampling panorama images
      5m 54s
    11. Introducing the Photomerge command
      6m 40s
    12. Evaluating the Layout settings
      6m 47s
    13. Loading, aligning, and blending with Photomerge
      5m 36s
    14. Tracing and extracting seams
      7m 18s
    15. Adding a masked element into a panorama
      5m 55s
    16. Simplifying and correcting a panorama
      5m 58s
    17. Smart Filters and nondestructive cropping
      6m 43s
  10. 1h 18m
    1. The most mysterious of mysterious topics
      2m 29s
    2. Introducing HDR Toning
      6m 43s
    3. Reigning in clipped highlights
      5m 54s
    4. The Local Adaptation options
      9m 5s
    5. Nondestructive editing with HDR Toning
      8m 22s
    6. Using the HDR Toning Curve
      7m 2s
    7. HDR Toning vs. Shadows/Highlights
      6m 0s
    8. Merging multiple exposures
      7m 14s
    9. A first look at HDR Pro
      6m 24s
    10. Removing ghosts, correcting backlighting
      7m 11s
    11. Generating and editing an HDR comp
      7m 0s
    12. HDR rendered to completion
      5m 19s
  11. 1h 27m
    1. Processing hundreds of files in no time
      1m 43s
    2. Creating an action set
      6m 37s
    3. Making an action
      7m 7s
    4. Stop, Delete, and Record
      7m 12s
    5. Add, Undo, and Rerecord
      6m 40s
    6. Playing and testing an action
      6m 31s
    7. Playing and editing a specific operation
      6m 39s
    8. Permitting the user to change settings
      4m 58s
    9. Explaining an action with a custom stop
      5m 0s
    10. Batch-processing multiple images
      7m 22s
    11. Adding a Save As operation
      6m 34s
    12. Creating an action to save web graphics
      7m 59s
    13. Batching two actions into one
      7m 15s
    14. Saving and loading actions
      5m 30s
  12. 1m 19s
    1. See ya
      1m 19s

Start learning today

Get unlimited access to all courses for just $25/month.

Become a member
Sometimes @lynda teaches me how to use a program and sometimes Lynda.com changes my life forever. @JosefShutter
@lynda lynda.com is an absolute life saver when it comes to learning todays software. Definitely recommend it! #higherlearning @Michael_Caraway
@lynda The best thing online! Your database of courses is great! To the mark and very helpful. Thanks! @ru22more
Got to create something yesterday I never thought I could do. #thanks @lynda @Ngventurella
I really do love @lynda as a learning platform. Never stop learning and developing, it’s probably our greatest gift as a species! @soundslikedavid
@lynda just subscribed to lynda.com all I can say its brilliant join now trust me @ButchSamurai
@lynda is an awesome resource. The membership is priceless if you take advantage of it. @diabetic_techie
One of the best decision I made this year. Buy a 1yr subscription to @lynda @cybercaptive
guys lynda.com (@lynda) is the best. So far I’ve learned Java, principles of OO programming, and now learning about MS project @lucasmitchell
Signed back up to @lynda dot com. I’ve missed it!! Proper geeking out right now! #timetolearn #geek @JayGodbold
Share a link to this course

What are exercise files?

Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course. Save time by downloading the author's files instead of setting up your own files, and learn by following along with the instructor.

Can I take this course without the exercise files?

Yes! If you decide you would like the exercise files later, you can upgrade to a premium account any time.

Become a member Download sample files See plans and pricing

Please wait... please wait ...
Upgrade to get access to exercise files.

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Learn by watching, listening, and doing, Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along Premium memberships include access to all exercise files in the library.


Exercise files

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

For additional information on downloading and using exercise files, watch our instructional video or read the instructions in the FAQ .

This course includes free exercise files, so you can practice while you watch the course. To access all the exercise files in our library, become a Premium Member.

Are you sure you want to mark all the videos in this course as unwatched?

This will not affect your course history, your reports, or your certificates of completion for this course.


Mark all as unwatched Cancel

Congratulations

You have completed Photoshop CS5 One-on-One: Mastery.

Return to your organization's learning portal to continue training, or close this page.


OK
Become a member to add this course to a playlist

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses—and create as many playlists as you like.

Get started

Already a member ?

Become a member to like this course.

Join today and get unlimited access to the entire library of video courses.

Get started

Already a member?

Exercise files

Learn by watching, listening, and doing! Exercise files are the same files the author uses in the course, so you can download them and follow along. Exercise files are available with all Premium memberships. Learn more

Get started

Already a Premium member?

Exercise files video

How to use exercise files.

Ask a question

Thanks for contacting us.
You’ll hear from our Customer Service team within 24 hours.

Please enter the text shown below:

The classic layout automatically defaults to the latest Flash Player.

To choose a different player, hold the cursor over your name at the top right of any lynda.com page and choose Site preferences from the dropdown menu.

Continue to classic layout Stay on new layout
Exercise files

Access exercise files from a button right under the course name.

Mark videos as unwatched

Remove icons showing you already watched videos if you want to start over.

Control your viewing experience

Make the video wide, narrow, full-screen, or pop the player out of the page into its own window.

Interactive transcripts

Click on text in the transcript to jump to that spot in the video. As the video plays, the relevant spot in the transcript will be highlighted.

Are you sure you want to delete this note?

No

Your file was successfully uploaded.

Thanks for signing up.

We’ll send you a confirmation email shortly.


Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

Keep up with news, tips, and latest courses with emails from lynda.com.

Sign up and receive emails about lynda.com and our online training library:

Here’s our privacy policy with more details about how we handle your information.

   
submit Lightbox submit clicked
Terms and conditions of use

We've updated our terms and conditions (now called terms of service).Go
Review and accept our updated terms of service.