# Applying an arbitrary map

## Video: Applying an arbitrary map

In this exercise we are going to take the Difference mask that we created in the previous exercise. Notice that I am still working inside that exact same Applied images.psd composition and I created the Difference mask using, of course, the Calculations command. We are going to take that Difference mask and we are going to enhance its contrast so that it becomes a usable mask. Normally I would use the Levels command to enhance the contrast, but we have so little contrast going on inside of this Difference mask that I am going to have to bring up the big guns by which I mean the Curves command.

## Applying an arbitrary map

In this exercise we are going to take the Difference mask that we created in the previous exercise. Notice that I am still working inside that exact same Applied images.psd composition and I created the Difference mask using, of course, the Calculations command. We are going to take that Difference mask and we are going to enhance its contrast so that it becomes a usable mask. Normally I would use the Levels command to enhance the contrast, but we have so little contrast going on inside of this Difference mask that I am going to have to bring up the big guns by which I mean the Curves command.

So press Ctrl+M or Command+M on the Mac to bring up the Curves command. You should be working in the difference channel, by the way. I am going to go ahead and drag inside of the image here. I want you to watch the bouncing ball in the graph. I am going to drag inside of the lightest portions of the hand and notice that we are still in a very dark region of the graph. We are down into the left of where the bouncing ball is and these are the highlights. This is as light as it gets folks. If we go into some of these darker areas of the hand, you can see that the ball is descending precipitously until we go, of course, down here into the blacks.

So this area of the histogram is the area that we want to send to white and then this region over here is the region that we would want to send to black. Now we could try to pull that off using the Point tool right there, but we are going to have better luck if we use the Pencil tool. The Pencil tool allows us to create an arbitrary map which allows us to create big, huge distinctions in contrast, which is what we need. So go ahead and get that Pencil tool and I am going to drag from about here. Notice the Input value, I want you to position your cursor at the top of the graph so the Output value is 255 and the Input value should be something like 15 for now, let's say.

I am just going to drag over to the right from that point, like so, and notice that I am dragging above the graph so that I get a strictly horizontal line that is all the way white, so that I am sending all those colors to bright white as you can see there, all those luminance levels. Then I am going to come down here to an Input of 14 and an Output of zero and I am going to drag over to the left and I will make all those colors black. Now this looks pretty good. We have made the hand nice and bright. That's nice. But we have also picked up some these sort of whiskers or iron filings, these white iron filings down here in the shadow detail and we don't want that. So let's go ahead and make our colors a little darker, make our image set just a little darker by dragging over one pixel at a time to the right with our Pencil tool here, with the Pencil tool.

At about an Input level of 19, things are looking pretty good. The way I am working here is I am sending everything that has a luminance level of 19 or brighter to white and everything that has a luminance level of approximately 18 and darker to black and I get this effect. Now if you decide to apply your changes slightly differently, that's okay, you could pick 20 as your threshold or something like 17 as your threshold, that kind of thing. Now so far we could have used the Threshold command to achieve this effect and had an easier time of it, frankly. But the Threshold command does not have this function right there, the Smooth button. I want you to click on Smooth once and that goes and creates a smooth transition, the smoothish transition between those two radical shifts in the arbitrary map.

As a result, we preserve a little bit, a modicum of natural edge right there. That's what we want. So just click on Smooth once and only once, then click on OK in order to accept that modification. So, so far so good, everything is looking great. This mask is coming along quite nicely. In the next exercise, we will use the Dodge and Burn tools along with Gaussian Blur and Levels in order to complete the hand mask.

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#### This video is part of

190 video lessons · 26326 viewers

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2h 13m
1. The Odyssey Continues
2m 39s
2. Mapping one image onto another
7m 12s
3. Making a custom contrast mode
7m 10s
4. Luminance blending
8m 40s
5. Forcing the visibility of underlying layers
4m 4s
6. Adjusting the appearance of clipped layers
4m 34s
7. Selecting a Blend If channel
6m 12s
8. Enhancing highlights by hiding them
5m 9s
9. Smart Object first, layer mask second
7m 22s
10. The Fill Opacity Eight
4m 30s
11. Blending Smart Filters
7m 24s
12. Cleaning up edges
7m 39s
13. More fun with luminance blending
6m 22s
14. A first peek at the Calculations command
12m 11s
15. Masking a softly focused model
11m 46s
16. Moving layers and masks between images
7m 35s
17. Matching colors
9m 13s
18. Building transitional blended layers
6m 33s
19. Restoring normal colors
6m 50s

2h 33m
1m 20s
2. Rotating and stretching
7m 54s
3. A jet of motion blur
9m 18s
4. Keyboard tricks
5m 4s
5. Merging sky and landscape
6m 3s
6m 37s
7. Creating two windows into an image
7m 42s
8. Whitening teeth and adding other highlights
3m 46s
9. Mapping a texture onto an image
4m 1s
10. Isolating a texture with a layer mask
6m 44s
11. Welcome to the glass composition
3m 18s
5m 51s
7m 24s
9m 23s
15. Adding and blending the goldfish
8m 45s
16. Assembling the perfect group photo
5m 12s
17. Aligning photographs automatically
5m 26s
18. Masking in each person's best shot
5m 18s
6m 17s
20. Crafting the perfect final poster
5m 16s
21. From the improbable to the impossible
1m 56s
22. The fantastical "world of clones" effect
10m 0s
23. Upsampling and blurring a background
8m 39s
8m 3s
25. Choking edges with Gaussian Blur and Levels
3m 46s

2h 27m
1. The corrective power of masking
1m 6s
7m 22s
3. Brightening and neutralizing the eyes
8m 22s
5m 52s
6m 4s
6. Averaging away irregular flesh tones
3m 52s
7. Modifying specific colors
7m 46s
6m 0s
6m 40s
10. Adjusting the edges around fabric
7m 56s
11. Perfecting hair
9m 35s
12. Sharpening with a High Pass layer
10m 12s
4m 48s
8m 48s
15. Fashioning a depth map
6m 12s
16. Invoking a depth mask from Lens Blur
6m 38s
17. The perfect depth-of-field effect
6m 25s
18. Sharpening an archival photograph
7m 7s
8m 29s
20. Making a High Pass sandwich
7m 46s
6m 2s
4m 6s
4. ### 13. Channel Mixing and Other Tricks

2h 3m
1. Channel Mixer, I am your father!
1m 39s
2. Three ways to gray
7m 49s
3. Meet the Channel Mixer
8m 26s
4. Mixing a custom black-and-white image
7m 10s
5. Creating a professional-level sepia tone
5m 36s
6. Employing the Black & White command
8m 1s
7. Extreme channel mixing
4m 50s
8. The infrared photography effect
6m 43s
9. Taking shadows to the brink of black
3m 56s
10. Elevating highlights, leeching saturation
5m 58s
11. Deepening a black-and-white sky
5m 49s
12. Infusing luminance levels with color
5m 44s
13. Creating an opposing colorization scheme
4m 58s
14. Bolstering contrast with the Green channel
5m 37s
15. A tiny improvement to a terrific technique
7m 39s
16. The simple (but wrong) approach to red-eye correction
6m 39s
17. Channel-mixing red pupils
9m 18s
18. The expert approach to red-eye correction
5m 20s
19. Fixing problem coronas (pupil edges)
8m 9s
20. Making pupils match
4m 8s
5. ### 14. Calculations (aka Channel Operations)

2h 33m
1m 37s
2. The Calculations command
8m 16s
3. Blue Screen blending
7m 40s
4. Refining the Blue Screen mask
5m 53s
5. Brushing away color fringing
7m 24s
6. Locking the transparency of a layer
6m 22s
7. Nondestructive layer painting
7m 36s
8. How the Add blend mode works
8m 40s
9. How the Subtract blend mode works
6m 43s
10. Focus, noise, and other masking challenges
5m 33s
11. The Add mode in action
7m 51s
12. The Subtract mode in action
8m 25s
13. Comparing two channels with Difference
5m 24s
14. Enhancing the contrast with Curves
9m 11s
15. Gathering details with Apply Image
9m 43s
6m 6s
17. Dodge and Burn in action
8m 24s
18. Painting in the scalp
10m 1s
19. Painting away the face and chin
4m 53s
20. Compositing complementary images
4m 13s
21. Multiply, Minimum, Blur, and Apply Image
6m 40s
22. Crafting the final composition
7m 7s
6. ### 15. The Pen Tool and the Paths Palette

1h 57m
1. Mark of the Pen tool
1m 35s
2. The big paths project overview
6m 51s
3. How to make a path
8m 25s
4. Corner points and freeform polygons
8m 6s
5. Editing paths with the arrow tools
5m 2s
5m 15s
7. Adding and deleting interior points
6m 6s
8. Converting a path to a selection
3m 35s
9. Converting a path to a mask
6m 38s
10. Smooth points and control handles
8m 57s
11. Making cusp points
6m 0s
12. Combining paths in a vector mask
7m 55s
13. Turning a path into a shape layer
8m 57s
14. Combining paths to make a layer mask
7m 52s
15. Mixing layer and vector masks
10m 14s
16. Editing character outlines as paths
8m 39s
17. Using the Convert Point tool
7m 8s
7. ### 16. Masking the Tough Stuff

3h 17m
1. Where there's a will, there's a way
1m 18s
4m 10s
3. Applying the cast show
4m 2s
3m 7s
5. Applying an arbitrary map
3m 50s
7m 17s
7. Roughing in an object mask
6m 49s
8. Drawing missing details with the Lasso tool
4m 7s
9. Combining flesh and object masks
3m 53s
4m 10s
11. Selectively choking edges
3m 58s
12. Power duplication in Photoshop
7m 9s
5m 48s
14. Using Levels to mask iterations
3m 14s
15. Drawing an iteration boundary
4m 55s
16. Merging the best of two Levels iterations
4m 4s
17. More fun with Dodge and Burn
6m 14s
18. Fixing edges with the Pen and Stamp tools
7m 29s
19. Pulling from another file with Apply Image
4m 52s
20. Blending clipped layers independently
5m 43s
9m 22s
22. Amplifying the flame
3m 53s
23. Masking an image against a busy background
5m 15s
24. The Freeform and Magnetic Pen tools
6m 52s
9m 32s
26. A more deliberate approach to arb maps
10m 51s
27. Combining arb maps with paths
9m 28s
28. Masking with the help of the History brush
11m 38s
29. Creating a High Pass mask
7m 25s
30. Coloring in the outlines
8m 31s
31. Mastering Calculations
7m 29s
32. Subtracting and merging the beak
11m 6s
8. ### 17. 16-Bit/Channel and HDR

1h 33m
1. The meaning of bit depth (and why you care)
2m 50s
2. Scanning line art in 8-bit and 16-bit
5m 9s
3. Measuring the 16-bit difference
8m 9s
4. Correcting 8-bit images in the 16-bit space
9m 31s
5. Opening a raw image directly in 16-bit
6m 13s
6. Editing in Camera Raw, opening in 16-bit
8m 22s
7. 16-Bit/channel vs. 32-bit/channel (HDR)
8m 18s
8. Working with auto-bracketed photographs
5m 6s
9. Using the Merge to HDR command
6m 0s
6m 0s
11. Building a 32-bit sky mask
6m 29s
12. Properly exposing land and sky
4m 25s
13. Modifying a layer mask in 32-bit
4m 56s
14. Converting to and correcting in 16-bit Lab
12m 7s
9. ### 18. DMaps and Lighting Effects

2h 8m
1. Photoshop flirts with the third dimension
1m 13s
2. The displacement map
8m 24s
3. Making custom waves
7m 14s
4. Creating a Gaussian distribution
4m 32s
5. Using a two-channel displacement map
6m 28s
6. Creating a rustic edge effect
8m 21s
7. Distorting and shading with a DMap
6m 34s
8. Moonlight reflecting off water
8m 48s
9. Mapping the reflection onto the water
7m 7s
10. Dipping the moon into the water
6m 18s
11. Turning flesh into stone
7m 55s
12. Wrapping the stone around the face
7m 27s
13. Softening a displacement map
8m 5s
14. Making a repeating watermark pattern
9m 22s
15. 3D embossing with Lighting Effects
10m 48s
16. The amazing credit card type effect
6m 56s
17. Lightening the credit card letters
6m 16s
18. Wrapping the background around the text
6m 27s

1m 43s
1. Goodbye
1m 43s

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