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Object-Oriented Programming with PHP
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Sharing interfaces using polymorphism


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Object-Oriented Programming with PHP

with Jon Peck

Video: Sharing interfaces using polymorphism

When developing an application, I'm typically working with many different kinds of data in different structures, each with a different behavior and need. However, if I were to use different naming conventions for every single data structure, my application would descend into chaos! The phrase "Spaghetti code" is an apt description, meaning the source code is impossibly complex and tangled, like a pile of pasta. Sounds delicious, but it's difficult to organize. To avoid this mess, I can use an object interface. An interface specifies what methods a class must implement, but doesn't say how those methods should be implemented.
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  1. 4m 10s
    1. Welcome
      39s
    2. Exercise files
      2m 16s
    3. What you should know
      1m 15s
  2. 7m 47s
    1. What is an object?
      2m 6s
    2. What is a class?
      2m 7s
    3. Why should you use object-oriented programming?
      2m 14s
    4. The history of object-oriented PHP
      1m 20s
  3. 16m 40s
    1. Defining a class
      2m 58s
    2. Defining class properties
      3m 26s
    3. Creating a method and exploring object context with $this
      2m 50s
    4. Instantiating an object and accessing its contents
      3m 19s
    5. Specifying the visibility scope
      4m 7s
  4. 15m 51s
    1. What is a magic method, and do I need one?
      2m 23s
    2. Overloading property access
      6m 37s
    3. Customizing object construction
      4m 34s
    4. Standardizing object rendering as a string
      2m 17s
  5. 20m 54s
    1. Using the static keyword
      3m 36s
    2. Leveraging scope resolution operators
      1m 10s
    3. Setting constant values
      2m 47s
    4. Implementing static methods
      5m 43s
    5. Creating a database class
      7m 38s
  6. 26m 19s
    1. Extending your class
      6m 8s
    2. Abstracting classes
      5m 57s
    3. Sharing interfaces using polymorphism
      4m 39s
    4. Overriding methods, properties, and constants
      3m 25s
    5. Cloning and comparing objects
      2m 51s
    6. Referencing objects
      3m 19s
  7. 14m 52s
    1. Leveraging standard class objects
      2m 42s
    2. Retrieving objects from the database
      5m 41s
    3. Error handling with exceptions
      2m 6s
    4. Customizing PHP exceptions
      4m 23s
  8. 8m 2s
    1. Identifying the singleton pattern
      1m 42s
    2. Using the factory method pattern
      1m 51s
    3. Implementing a strategy pattern
      4m 29s
  9. 2m 57s
    1. Looking forward to namespaces
      47s
    2. Next steps
      1m 6s
    3. Goodbye
      1m 4s

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Object-Oriented Programming with PHP
1h 57m Intermediate Sep 26, 2012 Updated Apr 10, 2013

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

Whether you're enhancing or optimizing existing code or just starting from scratch, there's never a better time to start integrating object-oriented design techniques. This course shows how to integrate the principles of object-oriented programming into the build of a PHP-driven web page or application. After an overview of what objects and classes are and why they should be used, author Jon Peck dives into creating and instantiating objects, then defining the class relationships and interactions that will form the basis of your coding arsenal. The course also shows how to leverage PHP objects and implement design patterns, and looks at steps you can take to continue adding to your programming tool belt.

Topics include:
  • Historical overview of object-oriented PHP
  • Defining classes
  • Creating a method/object context with $this
  • Accessing classes without instantiation
  • Creating a database class
  • Extending and abstracting classes
  • Cloning and comparing objects
  • Error handling with exceptions
  • Implementing design patterns, such as the factory and strategy patterns
Subjects:
Developer Programming Languages
Software:
PHP
Author:
Jon Peck

Sharing interfaces using polymorphism

When developing an application, I'm typically working with many different kinds of data in different structures, each with a different behavior and need. However, if I were to use different naming conventions for every single data structure, my application would descend into chaos! The phrase "Spaghetti code" is an apt description, meaning the source code is impossibly complex and tangled, like a pile of pasta. Sounds delicious, but it's difficult to organize. To avoid this mess, I can use an object interface. An interface specifies what methods a class must implement, but doesn't say how those methods should be implemented.

There are similarities to an abstract class, but the main importance is that interfaces don't have any methods of their own. In fact, an interface is not a class at all, but it's similar enough that auto loading will work with it. To use an interface, a class uses the keyword implements, followed by the name of the interface. A class can implement more than one interface at a time by separating their names with a comma, as long as those interfaces don't have conflicting method names. Interfaces can also have constants, which will be available to any classes that implement it.

Interface constants cannot be overridden or defined. Overwriting is going to be covered in greater detail in the next segment. So, what's the point of all this? Well, the practice of sharing a common application programming interface, or API, between classes is known as polymorphism. And, interfaces fit that definition quite well, because they're designed exactly for that purpose. In our application, I'm going to define an interface that both the address class and future classes must implement. When designing an interface, try to be as generic as possible, yet still kind of specific enough to be useful.

That sounds like a hard line to walk. So, to demonstrate this, I am going to create a model. A model is responsible for managing data, and storing and retrieving entities, and containing business logic. This aptly describes what the address class is going to be doing at a high level, and applies to future classes as well. I am going to the switch to the IDE. Let's create a new file called Class.Model.Inc. Start with the keyword interface, followed by the name. Shared interface for interactions.

I am going to require two methods in this interface. The first is Load, which will load from the database, given an address ID. I am using Static, as I can't guess what type of address will be returned, so I'll add logic that will return the correct address subclass. The second method will be Save, which will just save to the database. static function load, which takes an address_id. Load a model. param int $address_id. Next, function save, which will save a model. Save, then switch to the Address class.

You want to make the Address class implement the new model interface. So, after the name of the class, add the following: implements Model. If I were to save and refresh the demo, I'd get a fatal error, because the address class doesn't declare the methods from the model interface. We are setting up a situation where there's the possibility that a childs class can potentially declare a method that's already in the parent, like Load or Save. This is known as an override. I don't want to let that happen.

So, I'm going to use the keyword Final. When used on a method, Final prevents childs classes from overwriting the method. So, only the parent address class can describe the save behavior. I can also declare a class as Final, which will keep it from being extended. I'm going to make the Load and Save methods in the address class Final. At the end of the address class, add a final public static function load, which accepts an address_id, placeholder, followed by a final public function save.

Add documentation. param as an integer. And, add documentation. save the address. For now, I'm going to leave the declarations empty, and leave them for a later segment. With the introduction of the final keyword, I mentioned overrides, but didn't go into much detail. In the next segment, I'll discuss how to override methods, properties, and constants.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about Object-Oriented Programming with PHP.


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Q: I'm not seeing warnings or errors in my environment like the video; why not?
A: Your PHP configuration is probably configured not to show them to you. This is often true on commercial web hosts and is often the default. Fortunately, there are multiple ways of resolving this.

The easiest way would be to explicitly enable error reporting at the top of the PHP script you wish to debug.

error_reporting(E_ALL | E_STRICT);
ini_set('display_errors', 1);

Alternatively, if you have access to your php.ini file and you want to always have error reporting on, change error_reporting = to a development friendly value of

error_reporting = E_ALL | E_STRICT

then change display_errors = to

display_errors = On

Finally, if access to the php.ini file is not available, you can add the following directives to your .htaccess or VirtualHost configuration for Apache:

php_value error_reporting 32767
php_value display_errors 1

If you would like a development optimized development environment like the one utilized in this course, see Up and Running with Linux for PHP Developers, here in the lynda.com online training library.

Q: This course was updated on 4/10/2013. What changed?

A: The author rerecorded some of the tutorials to add more background information and better graphics.

 
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