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String types

From: MySQL Essential Training

Video: String types

MySQL provides string types for a variety of purposes. Variable length strings use less storage when the strings are shorter, The CHAR string is a fixed length string.

String types

MySQL provides string types for a variety of purposes. Character strings are used to store text based strings. Binary strings store non-text based data. Fixed length strings are padded and always use the same amount of storage. Variable length strings use less storage when the strings are shorter, and large object storage is used for storing documents and media files. Character strings come in two varieties. The CHAR string is a fixed length string.

The parameters used to define the length of the string. For example, if you specify a length of 5, the string will alway be 5 characters in length. If you put fewer than 5 characters in the string, it will add spaces at the end of the string in order to pad it out to 5 characters, and when you retrieve the string from the table, any padded spaces are removed first. The VARCHAR string is variable in length. The parameter is used to limit the length of the string. For example, if you specify a length of 25, the string will have up to 25 characters, plus the 1 or 2 byte length value.

So if you put ten characters in the string, it will use 11 bytes of storage. So in practical terms you'll usually used fixed length CHAR strings for items of predictable size like postal codes or fixed size abbreviations, and VARCHAR for variable length strings with a reasonable maximum size like names, titles, and moderate sized units of writing. Binary strings work exactly like character strings except they have no character set and they use binary collation. The BINARY type works just like the CHAR type, except that instead of space characters of binary columns padded with zeroes.

And just like the CHAR type those zeroes are stripped when the data is read from the table. VARBINARY works just like VARCHAR, but with no character set, and with binary collation. Large object storage is stored separately from the table row, so the size of these columns does not count against the hard limit on the size of the row. BLOB objects are binary large objects, like binary strings, they don't have any character set and use binary collation. Text objects are just like blobs, but they do use a character set and coalition.

This table shows the different sizes and storage requirements of the different large objects. For most purposes I use BLOB, TEXT or LONGBLOB or LONGTEXT. TINYBLOB is small enough that I'll normally use a VARCHAR or VARBINARY instead. The difference in overhead between medium and long versions is negligible, so I'll generally just use the long version if the 64k version isn't big enough. MySQL provides a good set of string types that should suit most every need. The official list of string types also includes a couple of the special types that I'll deal with separately later in this chapter.

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This video is part of

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MySQL Essential Training

60 video lessons · 6583 viewers

Bill Weinman
Author

 
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  1. 4m 22s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 31s
    3. What is MySQL?
      1m 48s
  2. 45m 37s
    1. Installation overview
      3m 16s
    2. Installing XAMPP on Windows
      5m 55s
    3. Installing XAMPP on the Mac
      6m 38s
    4. Setting up MySQL users
      11m 31s
    5. Installing SID on Windows
      5m 43s
    6. Installing SID on the Mac
      6m 6s
    7. Installing time zone support in MySQL on Windows
      6m 28s
  3. 45m 43s
    1. The SELECT statement
      3m 57s
    2. Selecting rows
      4m 57s
    3. Selecting columns
      3m 8s
    4. Sorting results with ORDER BY
      2m 58s
    5. Filtering results with WHERE
      3m 52s
    6. Filtering results with LIKE and IN
      3m 41s
    7. Filtering results with regular expressions
      8m 21s
    8. Inserting rows
      4m 9s
    9. Updating rows
      2m 21s
    10. Deleting rows
      2m 25s
    11. Literal strings
      3m 12s
    12. Understanding NULL
      2m 42s
  4. 41m 47s
    1. Creating a database
      4m 30s
    2. Creating a table
      7m 18s
    3. Creating indexes
      6m 8s
    4. Controlling column behavior with constraints
      4m 46s
    5. Creating an ID column
      6m 58s
    6. Using foreign key constraints
      7m 58s
    7. Altering a table
      4m 9s
  5. 28m 56s
    1. What are data types?
      4m 1s
    2. Numeric types
      5m 21s
    3. String types
      2m 58s
    4. Date and time types
      7m 2s
    5. Bit type
      2m 26s
    6. Boolean values
      2m 15s
    7. Enumeration types
      4m 53s
  6. 32m 34s
    1. String functions
      6m 57s
    2. Numeric functions
      6m 2s
    3. Date and time functions
      4m 12s
    4. Time zones in MySQL
      3m 37s
    5. Formatting dates
      1m 51s
    6. Aggregate functions
      5m 45s
    7. Flow control with CASE
      4m 10s
  7. 7m 6s
    1. Maintaining database integrity with transactions
      4m 46s
    2. Using transactions for performance
      2m 20s
  8. 16m 49s
    1. Updating a table with a trigger
      5m 11s
    2. Preventing automatic updates with a trigger
      7m 29s
    3. Logging transactions with a trigger
      4m 9s
  9. 14m 11s
    1. Creating a simple subselect
      3m 23s
    2. Searching within a result set
      3m 53s
    3. Creating a view
      3m 32s
    4. Creating a joined view
      3m 23s
  10. 12m 26s
    1. Understanding MySQL stored routines
      2m 0s
    2. Creating a stored function
      4m 34s
    3. Creating a stored procedure
      5m 52s
  11. 14m 4s
    1. The multi-platform PDO interface
      3m 44s
    2. Executing the SQL
      4m 8s
    3. Implementing auto-increment IDs
      2m 3s
    4. Using a stored funciton
      4m 9s
  12. 1m 3s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 3s

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