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Setting cookie values

From: PHP with MySQL Essential Training

Video: Setting cookie values

In this movie we're going to learn how to set Cookie Values using PHP, and we'll do that by using PHPs setcookie function. The set cookie function is going to take three arguments, name, value and an expiration. The name is going to be the name that we want to set for this particular cookie. The value is the value that we want to associate with that name. Together, they work like a key value pair. And in fact, when we get our cookie back from the user, and it's stored in our cookie superglobal. We're going to refer to that cookie by its name. That'll be the key in the associative array and it will return the value to us. The third argument, the expiration is us telling the browser how long it ought to keep this cookie around.

Setting cookie values

In this movie we're going to learn how to set Cookie Values using PHP, and we'll do that by using PHPs setcookie function. The set cookie function is going to take three arguments, name, value and an expiration. The name is going to be the name that we want to set for this particular cookie. The value is the value that we want to associate with that name. Together, they work like a key value pair. And in fact, when we get our cookie back from the user, and it's stored in our cookie superglobal. We're going to refer to that cookie by its name. That'll be the key in the associative array and it will return the value to us. The third argument, the expiration is us telling the browser how long it ought to keep this cookie around.

You should consider this cookie valid until a certain date. Cookies don't necessarily last forever, we can tell the browser, keep this cookie around for 24 hours. Keep it around for a week. Keep it around for 10 years. It's up to us to tell the browser how long we want this cookie to remain valid. Let's try setting one. To begin with let's open up basic.html. And let's do Save As, we'll call this cookies.php, Cookies, and I'll come down here. And I'll make a php block. And we will type our functions setcookie, no underscores, all run together. And then name, value, and expire.

Now when you actually use this in the real world you probably won't use variables for all of this. You'll probably just type the value in here a lot of time, and the name might be just test. I'm going to go ahead and leave these variables in here so that they're a little bit descriptive to you about what each of these things is. And instead I'll just put name up here equal to test and value equal to 45. Now for the expiration, we need to send a Unix time stamp. You may be thinking, well, what in the world? How do I deal with a Unix time stamp? That's something I've never dealt with. Well, luckily, you don't have to worry too much about it, because PHP will give you the current time as a Unix times tamp by using the time function.

So time will return that time to you, and then we can just use math to add time to it to say how far in the future from right now should this cookie stay valid. Because the unit's timestamp is precise to the second, we need to add seconds to that time. So the easiest way to do that is to say well, there's 60 seconds in a minute and there are 60 minutes in an hour and there are 24 hours in a day. And there are seven days in a week. So this would then be adding one week on to the current time. If you wanted to have two weeks, well you'd add a 2 at the end, four weeks would be a 4, and so on. This is the easiest way to do it.

You'll see this all the time in people's code, so add seconds. Now, t his will set a cookie called test to the value 45, and will make it last for one week. So these cookie instructions are going to be sent with the response header. Now, think about that for a second. Hopefully in chapter 10, I impressed upon you why that matters so much. If not, go back and review headers and output buffering. Headers can only be set before any HTML output unless buffering is on. So, that includes setting cookies, too. They go in the header. You can't set a cookie in the header if the header has already left PHP and is waiting the webserver, getting ready to go back to the browser.

So therefore, all of this needs to go up here above our HTML. Now, in truth, I believed I turned output buffering on. So this probably would work just fine. But I'm going to go ahead and put it up here at the top anyway. And I'm going to Paste a little note here to remind myself. Remember that setting cookies must be done before any HTMLs output, unless output buffering is turned on, okay. So now we're ready to try it. Now we're ready to set the cookie and then it will render the HTML after that. So I'll go back to my browser. Then before I even go to a URL, let's make sure that we have cookies turned on because this is a configurable thing. People can turn off their cookies under preferences, under privacy in Firefox. In different browsers it might be in different places, it's usually Privacy or Security.

You can accept whether to choose cookies from different sites. Now if I choose private browsing mode, it won't accept cookies from the sites. If I choose, Never remember history, it won't remember, okay? But, if I have it set to accept cookies from sites, then, cookies will come to me and be stored. So, make sure that's set for you first. Usually it is, most people have it on. And let's do then local host, for me that's going to be located at kevinskoglund/sandbox/cookies.php. Okay, so now, it loaded the page. And you can see it says cookies up here, so we have the page loaded. Did it set the cookie? We could use php to retrieve the value but we can also go back there to our preferences and there's an potion for show cookies.

This is, most browsers should have something like this somewhere, you may have to dig around a little bit until you find it. But you can see that Show Cookies is an option and here I have one for local host, that's the server that I'm on. You can see that, when I was on Google, Google set a cookie and it's google.com. So it would usually be the domain. In our case our domain is local host, and here it is. So all the cookies would be listed here under my domain. The cookie name is test and the content for that cookie is 45. Notice that we can see the value of our cookie easily. It may not be any big deal, but as developers we need to stay mindful of the fact that this information is exposed to our end users.

They can see the values that we set for cookies. And you should assume that anything you set as a cookie could be used by hackers to try and trick your site or to gain useful information about how your site works. So don't store anything critical here without first encrypting it. Notice also that our exportation date is down here. You can play around and try setting different expiration dates, see what those looks like. Notice also that the cookie can be removed, so cookies are not permanent. The user has the ability to remove cookies just by doing that. Now the cookie is gone. It's not set anymore. So the user always has that option, but if they don't do that, then we can remember who they are.

And typically, the kinds of things we want to store with cookies are not super application sensitive. They are things that are nice for the user, so they probably want to keep them around because they help us to give a better user experience to them. Okay, so now that we know how to set cookies, in the next movie let's see how we read cookies back using PHP.

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This video is part of

Image for PHP with MySQL Essential Training
PHP with MySQL Essential Training

131 video lessons · 37829 viewers

Kevin Skoglund
Author

 
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 54m 53s
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    5. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    6. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    7. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    8. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    9. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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