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The SELECT statement

From: MySQL Essential Training

Video: The SELECT statement

SQL is a very common language for querying SQL statements are not case sensitive that means the MySQL also recognizes single line comments introduced with the pound character.

The SELECT statement

SQL is a very common language for querying and manipulating data in a database management system. Every system has it's own variation of SQL and MySQL is no different. The basics are the same but the details can be very different. An SQL statement begins with a key word and ends with a semicolon. Technically the semicolon is a statement terminator in SQL. That means that it's always required. Some systems, however, including MySQL, may use the semicolon as a separator in some contexts.

This means that it's not always required if there's only one statement. The semicolon is always allowed so it never hurts to use it, and I recommend that you get in the habit of using it all the time. SQL statements are not case sensitive that means the capital letters and lowercase letters are treated as the same. So these two statements are effectively the same. By default most symbols in SQL are also not case sensitive, but there are exceptions. In this example, the table name may or may not be case sensitive.

So these two statements may or may not be equivalent. If your MySQL Server's running on Windows or a Mac, the table name will not be case sensitive and these two statements will be equivalent. If your MySQL Server is running on a UNIX system or any operating system with. Case sensitive file names, the table name may be case sensitive and these two statements may refer to two different tables. Keep in mind that MySQL allows configuration options that may change this behavior, it's possible to configure your server so that all symbols are case sensitive.

I suggest that you always write your SQL consistently including the case of your symbols. This will make your code as portable as possible. Remember that your server is often running on a different operating system than your desktop. So even though your desktop is a Windows or Mac systems, your server may not be. This is an example of a standard line oriented S-Q-L comment. The comment is introduced by a double dash followed by at least one space, and ends at the end of the line. More specifically, the comment is introduced by two hyphen characters with no space between them.

And at least one space after the second hyphen. This is followed by the comment text. And the comment is terminated with a new line. MySQL also recognizes c style comments. This also conforms with the latest SQL standard. This allows multi-line comments with much more ease than line-oriented comments. MySQL also recognizes single line comments introduced with the pound character. This is not standard SQL, and I recommend that you avoid using this style of comment.

You may see this in very old MySQL code, and I recommend that you change these comments. To use the double dash form. A statement may have one or more clauses depending on the syntax of the statement. For example, this SELECT statement has a FROM clause and a WHERE clause. The FROM clause specifies the table. And the WHERE clause specifies the condition that must be satisfied for each of the rows selected. Functions are used to perform specific operations on data. In this example, the count function is used to find the number of rows matching the condition in the where clause.

Expressions are used in SQL to derive values from data. For example, this statement has 2 expressions. This expression divides the population column by 1 million in order to display the population in millions. And this logical expression is used to select only those rows where the population column is greater than or equal to 1 million. The structure of SQL syntax is very simple, but the rules can be complex depending on the statements and usage. In the rest of this course, we'll look at the specific details for many usages.

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This video is part of

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MySQL Essential Training

60 video lessons · 5914 viewers

Bill Weinman
Author

 
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  1. 4m 22s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 31s
    3. What is MySQL?
      1m 48s
  2. 45m 37s
    1. Installation overview
      3m 16s
    2. Installing XAMPP on Windows
      5m 55s
    3. Installing XAMPP on the Mac
      6m 38s
    4. Setting up MySQL users
      11m 31s
    5. Installing SID on Windows
      5m 43s
    6. Installing SID on the Mac
      6m 6s
    7. Installing time zone support in MySQL on Windows
      6m 28s
  3. 45m 43s
    1. The SELECT statement
      3m 57s
    2. Selecting rows
      4m 57s
    3. Selecting columns
      3m 8s
    4. Sorting results with ORDER BY
      2m 58s
    5. Filtering results with WHERE
      3m 52s
    6. Filtering results with LIKE and IN
      3m 41s
    7. Filtering results with regular expressions
      8m 21s
    8. Inserting rows
      4m 9s
    9. Updating rows
      2m 21s
    10. Deleting rows
      2m 25s
    11. Literal strings
      3m 12s
    12. Understanding NULL
      2m 42s
  4. 41m 47s
    1. Creating a database
      4m 30s
    2. Creating a table
      7m 18s
    3. Creating indexes
      6m 8s
    4. Controlling column behavior with constraints
      4m 46s
    5. Creating an ID column
      6m 58s
    6. Using foreign key constraints
      7m 58s
    7. Altering a table
      4m 9s
  5. 28m 56s
    1. What are data types?
      4m 1s
    2. Numeric types
      5m 21s
    3. String types
      2m 58s
    4. Date and time types
      7m 2s
    5. Bit type
      2m 26s
    6. Boolean values
      2m 15s
    7. Enumeration types
      4m 53s
  6. 32m 34s
    1. String functions
      6m 57s
    2. Numeric functions
      6m 2s
    3. Date and time functions
      4m 12s
    4. Time zones in MySQL
      3m 37s
    5. Formatting dates
      1m 51s
    6. Aggregate functions
      5m 45s
    7. Flow control with CASE
      4m 10s
  7. 7m 6s
    1. Maintaining database integrity with transactions
      4m 46s
    2. Using transactions for performance
      2m 20s
  8. 16m 49s
    1. Updating a table with a trigger
      5m 11s
    2. Preventing automatic updates with a trigger
      7m 29s
    3. Logging transactions with a trigger
      4m 9s
  9. 14m 11s
    1. Creating a simple subselect
      3m 23s
    2. Searching within a result set
      3m 53s
    3. Creating a view
      3m 32s
    4. Creating a joined view
      3m 23s
  10. 12m 26s
    1. Understanding MySQL stored routines
      2m 0s
    2. Creating a stored function
      4m 34s
    3. Creating a stored procedure
      5m 52s
  11. 14m 4s
    1. The multi-platform PDO interface
      3m 44s
    2. Executing the SQL
      4m 8s
    3. Implementing auto-increment IDs
      2m 3s
    4. Using a stored funciton
      4m 9s
  12. 1m 3s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 3s

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