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PHP with MySQL Essential Training
Illustration by Don Barnett

Making page assets reusable


From:

PHP with MySQL Essential Training

with Kevin Skoglund

Video: Making page assets reusable

In the last movie, we created and added a style sheet to our first page, admin.php. In this movie, we're going to build on that by starting our second page, manage_content.php. And for this page, we want to reuse the same look that we had for admin.php. Pages would share a common header, footer and other page elements are often said to share the same layout. So what we want to do is create manage content dot php with the same layout that we had for admin.php. Let's start by opening up both pages. So we've got manage_content.php, that's going to be the page that we're working on, and I'm going to open up admin.php.
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  1. 4m 8s
    1. Welcome
      1m 0s
    2. Using the exercise files
      3m 8s
  2. 15m 6s
    1. What is PHP?
      3m 52s
    2. The history of PHP
      2m 51s
    3. Why choose PHP?
      4m 10s
    4. Installation overview
      4m 13s
  3. 54m 53s
    1. Overview
      2m 33s
    2. Working with Apache Web Server
      6m 56s
    3. Changing the document root
      7m 24s
    4. Enabling PHP
      6m 16s
    5. Upgrading PHP
      3m 30s
    6. Configuring PHP
      10m 3s
    7. Installing MySQL
      5m 46s
    8. Configuring MySQL
      7m 24s
    9. Text editor
      5m 1s
  4. 31m 25s
    1. Overview
      3m 27s
    2. Installing WampServer
      5m 46s
    3. Finding the document root
      2m 24s
    4. Configuring PHP
      8m 12s
    5. Configuring MySQL
      5m 45s
    6. Text editor
      5m 51s
  5. 19m 12s
    1. Embedding PHP code on a page
      6m 43s
    2. Outputting dynamic text
      5m 55s
    3. The operational trail
      2m 27s
    4. Inserting code comments
      4m 7s
  6. 1h 18m
    1. Variables
      7m 50s
    2. Strings
      4m 38s
    3. String functions
      8m 54s
    4. Numbers part one: Integers
      6m 27s
    5. Numbers part two: Floating points
      5m 25s
    6. Arrays
      10m 0s
    7. Associative arrays
      6m 37s
    8. Array functions
      6m 33s
    9. Booleans
      3m 50s
    10. NULL and empty
      5m 15s
    11. Type juggling and casting
      8m 27s
    12. Constants
      4m 43s
  7. 27m 37s
    1. If statements
      6m 0s
    2. Else and elseif statements
      4m 16s
    3. Logical operators
      7m 30s
    4. Switch statements
      9m 51s
  8. 42m 15s
    1. While loops
      8m 41s
    2. For loops
      5m 59s
    3. Foreach loops
      8m 16s
    4. Continue
      8m 28s
    5. Break
      4m 8s
    6. Understanding array pointers
      6m 43s
  9. 37m 25s
    1. Defining functions
      8m 25s
    2. Function arguments
      5m 32s
    3. Returning values from a function
      7m 33s
    4. Multiple return values
      4m 53s
    5. Scope and global variables
      6m 2s
    6. Setting default argument values
      5m 0s
  10. 20m 18s
    1. Common problems
      3m 47s
    2. Warnings and errors
      8m 36s
    3. Debugging and troubleshooting
      7m 55s
  11. 57m 57s
    1. Links and URLs
      5m 33s
    2. Using GET values
      5m 35s
    3. Encoding GET values
      8m 41s
    4. Encoding for HTML
      9m 26s
    5. Including and requiring files
      7m 40s
    6. Modifying headers
      6m 45s
    7. Page redirection
      6m 43s
    8. Output buffering
      7m 34s
  12. 1h 3m
    1. Building forms
      7m 28s
    2. Detecting form submissions
      5m 59s
    3. Single-page form processing
      7m 57s
    4. Validating form values
      10m 40s
    5. Problems with validation logic
      9m 54s
    6. Displaying validation errors
      7m 23s
    7. Custom validation functions
      6m 28s
    8. Single-page form with validations
      7m 25s
  13. 28m 5s
    1. Working with cookies
      2m 49s
    2. Setting cookie values
      5m 55s
    3. Reading cookie values
      6m 1s
    4. Unsetting cookie values
      4m 51s
    5. Working with sessions
      8m 29s
  14. 48m 39s
    1. MySQL introduction
      6m 43s
    2. Creating a database
      7m 41s
    3. Creating a database table
      7m 42s
    4. CRUD in MySQL
      5m 48s
    5. Populating a MySQL database
      7m 32s
    6. Relational database tables
      6m 40s
    7. Populating the relational table
      6m 33s
  15. 56m 4s
    1. Database APIs in PHP
      4m 51s
    2. Connecting to MySQL with PHP
      7m 45s
    3. Retrieving data from MySQL
      8m 47s
    4. Working with retrieved data
      6m 12s
    5. Creating records with PHP
      6m 58s
    6. Updating and deleting records with PHP
      9m 6s
    7. SQL injection
      3m 5s
    8. Escaping strings for MySQL
      6m 45s
    9. Introducing prepared statements
      2m 35s
  16. 35m 58s
    1. Blueprinting the application
      7m 19s
    2. Building the CMS database
      5m 14s
    3. Establishing your work area
      4m 38s
    4. Creating and styling the first page
      4m 22s
    5. Making page assets reusable
      6m 36s
    6. Connecting the application to the database
      7m 49s
  17. 32m 49s
    1. Adding pages to the navigation subjects
      5m 58s
    2. Refactoring the navigation
      6m 7s
    3. Selecting pages from the navigation
      6m 2s
    4. Highlighting the current page
      5m 26s
    5. Moving the navigation to a function
      9m 16s
  18. 1h 45m
    1. Finding a subject in the database
      9m 48s
    2. Refactoring the page selection
      10m 52s
    3. Creating a new subject form
      6m 55s
    4. Processing form values and adding subjects
      11m 20s
    5. Passing data in the session
      9m 16s
    6. Validating form values
      9m 40s
    7. Creating an edit subject form
      8m 30s
    8. Using single-page submission
      7m 44s
    9. Deleting a subject
      9m 44s
    10. Cleaning up
      10m 37s
    11. Assignment: Pages CRUD
      4m 30s
    12. Assignment results: Pages CRUD
      6m 10s
  19. 39m 26s
    1. The public appearance
      8m 52s
    2. Using a context for conditional code
      11m 37s
    3. Adding a default subject behavior
      6m 9s
    4. The public content area
      5m 51s
    5. Protecting page visibility
      6m 57s
  20. 1h 3m
    1. User authentication overview
      4m 3s
    2. Admin CRUD
      8m 41s
    3. Encrypting passwords
      7m 26s
    4. Salting passwords
      5m 42s
    5. Adding password encryption to CMS
      11m 54s
    6. New PHP password functions
      3m 13s
    7. Creating a login system
      11m 28s
    8. Checking for authorization
      5m 48s
    9. Creating a logout page
      5m 40s
  21. 2m 4s
    1. Next steps
      2m 4s

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PHP with MySQL Essential Training
14h 24m Beginner Jun 04, 2013

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

PHP is a popular, reliable programming language at the foundation of many smart, data-driven websites. This comprehensive course from Kevin Skoglund helps developers learn the basics of PHP (including variables, logical expressions, loops, and functions), understand how to connect PHP to a MySQL database, and gain experience developing a complete web application with site navigation, form validation, and a password-protected admin area. Kevin also covers the basic CRUD routines for updating a database, debugging techniques, and usable user interfaces. Along the way, he provides practical advice, offers examples of best practices, and demonstrates refactoring techniques to improve existing code.

Topics include:
  • What is PHP?
  • Installing and configuring PHP and MySQL
  • Exploring data types
  • Controlling code with logical expressions and loops
  • Using PHP's built-in functions
  • Writing custom functions
  • Building dynamic webpages
  • Working with forms and form data
  • Using cookies and sessions to store data
  • Connecting to MySQL with PHP
  • Creating and editing database records
  • Building a content management system
  • Adding user authentication
Subjects:
Developer Servers Programming Languages Web Development
Software:
MySQL PHP
Author:
Kevin Skoglund

Making page assets reusable

In the last movie, we created and added a style sheet to our first page, admin.php. In this movie, we're going to build on that by starting our second page, manage_content.php. And for this page, we want to reuse the same look that we had for admin.php. Pages would share a common header, footer and other page elements are often said to share the same layout. So what we want to do is create manage content dot php with the same layout that we had for admin.php. Let's start by opening up both pages. So we've got manage_content.php, that's going to be the page that we're working on, and I'm going to open up admin.php.

Which has the layout, all the html that we need to have that same look. So as a starting point let's do a select all on admin.php and copy it and let's just replace everything that's in managed_content.php with that. Then we'lll take out the parts here that are specific to the admin menu and then we're just going to change this to instead say Manage Content. We'll Save that. Now hopefully you cringed a little bit when I did that just now, because as we noted a few times already in this tutorial.

One of the things that makes a great developer is the ability to not repeat yourself. If you find yourself doing big sections of Copy Paste like I just did, that's a sign that you are probably doing something wrong. As we've seen, we can use loops, functions, and include require statements to help us to reuse our code effectively. In this case we can take the html that's going to be common to both pages and move it to separate files which then both pages can include. Then if we want to make a change to our layout later we can change the included files and that change will then appear on all pages that share the same layout. Let's try that instead, so what I'm going to do is grab everything here that's above main.

Everything above that and I'm just going to cut it. So it just gets removed form there. And then I'm going to open a New file. I'm going to Paste it into here. And Save it in widget_corp inside includes. And I'm going to save it as header.php. And then I'll close that up. We'll do the same thing on the footer, so everything from div id footer down. We're going to cut that out of there, make a new file, and we're going to save that in widget_corp, in includes as footer.php. Okay, now, that would work, and we could certainly just have those includes like this.

However, because these are going to be different from a lot of the other kinds of code that's going to be in our includes folder. I'm actually going to go a little farther and just create a new folder called layouts. I'm going to put them inside that. So that'll just help to group them together a little bit more. And I can put all my layouts into a folder called layouts now. So now, we just need to come back over here and actually include those. And we can do that with our PHP tag, include and then we just have to tell it the path to the file that we want to include. So let's look at how we get there. What we need to do is go from manage content, we need to go backwards one directory to go outside of public.

And then we can go into our includes folder, into layouts, and to header.php. So the way that we go backwards a directory is with dot, dot that references the parent directory. So for Manage Content, go to the parent directory. And from there we can then go into includes, into layouts, and into header.php. That's the file that we want. We can do the same thing then down here for the footer. I'll just Copy and Past that in down here, instead of header, it's going to be footer. I'm also just going to bring all this back over to the left side of the page.

Now, you'll notice another thing that's really nice about doing it this way is that our header and footer are now out of the way. We can really focus on what's important on this page which is really just the meat of the page right here in the middle. The header and the footer are just kind of evaporated. Let's try bringing this up in our browser and see if it worked. So save your page, we'll go over to Firefox and we can just click on this link for Manage Website Content. That takes us to managecontent.php, Manage Content, and it has our correct layout. So now we just need to apply that same thing over to our admin page.

So I'll just copy that, and everything from the top of the page all the way down to right above main can be removed and we'll just put in our include instead. Ill also just select those, bring those back over to the far left and then we'll do the same thing at the bottom, take everything out and use our include footer instead. Let's trying bringing that page up again, that's going to be admin.php. And there it is, has the same layout. Now notice that I have untitled up here at the top, so let's actually try and make a change here.

Let's Save this and Close it, save that and close it and let me just get to where I can see the page. Let's go to header.php and instead of untitled, we'll call it Widget Corp, Save it. We'll come back over to Firefox, Reload this page and you'll see we now have a page title here, Manage Website Content. We have a page title here, too. So making a change that included File, made the change to all files which use it. And that makes sense. So you can see that this is a way to work smarter. Okay now that we've done includes for layouts, I also want to do one more before we leave this topic. And that's going to be to put a functions.php placeholder in the includes folder.

So I'm just going to open up text mate again, I'll make a new file, and I'm just, open some php tags in it. And I'll just leave it like that. Well Save it inside widget_corp inside includes, not inside layouts, just inside includes. I'm going to call it functions.php. Save it, and now in our Managed Content page, I can include that file as well and we'll have access to all of those functions. So not in layouts, I don't need that anymore. But inside functions.php, and now, it'll load up anything that I've got in there, any functions that I've got will become available to me in this PHP page.

Let's go back and just load it, make sure we didn't break anything. Reload the page, no problems whatsoever. Now, remember when we talked about include and require, I said that it is actually better when you have functions to use require once. And that'll make sure that it is included, it's required to be included or else we get an error, and it will only be included once. We can do the same thing with our headers, our footers. It's really not as important as it is with functions. Functions can't be defined more than once, so we want to ensure that it only happens one time. So we'll save and our managed content page has it's functions.

Let's just do that last change, also to the admin page. Just so that it has them, too. It doesn't actually have functions right now that it needs. It's just real simple with links. But I can go ahead and include it here, too. Just in case I need it in the future, it'll be there as well. I'll just make it a standard part of what I add to the top of all my pages.

Find answers to the most frequently asked questions about PHP with MySQL Essential Training.


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Q: This course was revised on 6/4/2013. What changed?
A: The old version of this course was 6 years old and it was time for a complete revision, using PHP 5.4. (The tutorials will work with any version of PHP and covers any differences you might encounter). The author has also added updated installation instructions for Mac OS X Mountain Lion and Windows 8. The topics and end project are the same, but the code is slightly different. It also addresses frequently asked questions from the previous version.
 
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