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MySQL Essential Training
Illustration by Don Barnett

Executing the SQL


From:

MySQL Essential Training

with Bill Weinman

Video: Executing the SQL

Like most database APIs the PDO interface is built on top of the standard And then once all of that is built and put together,
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  1. 4m 22s
    1. Welcome
      1m 3s
    2. Using the exercise files
      1m 31s
    3. What is MySQL?
      1m 48s
  2. 45m 37s
    1. Installation overview
      3m 16s
    2. Installing XAMPP on Windows
      5m 55s
    3. Installing XAMPP on the Mac
      6m 38s
    4. Setting up MySQL users
      11m 31s
    5. Installing SID on Windows
      5m 43s
    6. Installing SID on the Mac
      6m 6s
    7. Installing time zone support in MySQL on Windows
      6m 28s
  3. 45m 43s
    1. The SELECT statement
      3m 57s
    2. Selecting rows
      4m 57s
    3. Selecting columns
      3m 8s
    4. Sorting results with ORDER BY
      2m 58s
    5. Filtering results with WHERE
      3m 52s
    6. Filtering results with LIKE and IN
      3m 41s
    7. Filtering results with regular expressions
      8m 21s
    8. Inserting rows
      4m 9s
    9. Updating rows
      2m 21s
    10. Deleting rows
      2m 25s
    11. Literal strings
      3m 12s
    12. Understanding NULL
      2m 42s
  4. 41m 47s
    1. Creating a database
      4m 30s
    2. Creating a table
      7m 18s
    3. Creating indexes
      6m 8s
    4. Controlling column behavior with constraints
      4m 46s
    5. Creating an ID column
      6m 58s
    6. Using foreign key constraints
      7m 58s
    7. Altering a table
      4m 9s
  5. 28m 56s
    1. What are data types?
      4m 1s
    2. Numeric types
      5m 21s
    3. String types
      2m 58s
    4. Date and time types
      7m 2s
    5. Bit type
      2m 26s
    6. Boolean values
      2m 15s
    7. Enumeration types
      4m 53s
  6. 32m 34s
    1. String functions
      6m 57s
    2. Numeric functions
      6m 2s
    3. Date and time functions
      4m 12s
    4. Time zones in MySQL
      3m 37s
    5. Formatting dates
      1m 51s
    6. Aggregate functions
      5m 45s
    7. Flow control with CASE
      4m 10s
  7. 7m 6s
    1. Maintaining database integrity with transactions
      4m 46s
    2. Using transactions for performance
      2m 20s
  8. 16m 49s
    1. Updating a table with a trigger
      5m 11s
    2. Preventing automatic updates with a trigger
      7m 29s
    3. Logging transactions with a trigger
      4m 9s
  9. 14m 11s
    1. Creating a simple subselect
      3m 23s
    2. Searching within a result set
      3m 53s
    3. Creating a view
      3m 32s
    4. Creating a joined view
      3m 23s
  10. 12m 26s
    1. Understanding MySQL stored routines
      2m 0s
    2. Creating a stored function
      4m 34s
    3. Creating a stored procedure
      5m 52s
  11. 14m 4s
    1. The multi-platform PDO interface
      3m 44s
    2. Executing the SQL
      4m 8s
    3. Implementing auto-increment IDs
      2m 3s
    4. Using a stored funciton
      4m 9s
  12. 1m 3s
    1. Goodbye
      1m 3s

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MySQL Essential Training
4h 24m Beginner May 14, 2014

Viewers: in countries Watching now:

MySQL is by far the most popular database management system for small- to medium-sized web projects. In this course, Bill Weinman provides clear, concise tutorials that guide you through creating and maintaining a MySQL database of your own. Bill explores the basic syntax, using SQL statements to create, insert, update, and delete data from your tables. He also covers creating a new database from scratch, as well as data types, transactions, subselects, views, and stored routines. Plus, learn about the multi-platform PHP PDO interface that will help you connect your database to web applications.

Topics include:
  • Writing queries
  • Creating and updating databases and tables
  • Using MySQL built-in functions
  • Sorting and filtering data
  • Updating tables with triggers
  • Working with subselects and views
  • Creating and using a stored function
Subjects:
Developer Databases
Software:
MySQL
Author:
Bill Weinman

Executing the SQL

Like most database APIs the PDO interface is built on top of the standard MySQL C interface which provides a facility for prepared statements. Prepared statements allow the database to analyze and compile an SQL statement and then execute it over and over again. To get the results one row at a time. This is actually a lot more efficient than it sounds. The alternative would be to grab all of the rows of a result at once which may sound like a good idea, but it rarely actually is a good idea.

You never know how many rows there'll be or how much memory and compute resources will be required to process them. Getting one row at a time is very manageable. And with prepared statements, it's actually quite efficient. Prepared statements also provide for statement parameters. Statement parameters provide significant security benefits, especially against SQL injection attacks. Here in this get_albums SQL function, you notice that the query is very simple. It's just a select everything.

From album, order by title. And so here on line three, 637 this prepare call prepares the statement and it compiles it in the server. And then there's a fetch statement later on which can fetch row by row each of the results from that prepared statement. Down here in the get_tracks_sql, this statement is a little bit more complicated. Here we have different statements for different database engines because the SQL differs between them.

This is the MySQL version. There's the SQL Lite version, there's the Postgres version. And you'll notice that each of these has in it somewhere a WHERE album_id equals question mark. And this question mark is actually a parameter. What happens is, when we get down here and we have the query here in the query variable. Prepare is called and then execute is called, and execute is called with an array of parameters, and so the album id is actually passed as a parameter.

What this means is the statement is already prepared and it's already on the server, and then the parameters are passed separately, effectively in a separate channel. They never actually combine the text of the parameter with the text of the query. Those strings are never in the same place at the same time. They're never combined and this makes it virtually impossible for a SQL injection attack to occur. And it also provides other efficiencies, in that the engine is given the opportunity to optimize the execution path for the query.

Based on what the parameters actually ar, and sometimes adjust that optimization as the query is being executed. If we go over here to the display_tracks function, we see down here in this while loop that rows are fetched one at a time. And then they're passed off to a track results row which builds the HTML of the results row along with all of the form elements and everything like that. And it's passed this associative array, this flag here, PDO::FETCH ASSOC.

That tells the PDO interface to take all of the results and put them in an associative array, which is very convenient for things like building form elements. And then once all of that is built and put together, you notice that there's little bits of HTML scattered throughout here. All of that is passed to a content call, which builds the whole page bit by bit. But what we're concerned with here is this fetch call because this, with the prepared statement and the parameters already passed off to the server.

That can just grab the results row by row and it's all very efficient to do it that way. So MySQL provides a rich and mature interface for preparing and executing SQL safely and efficiently and the PDO library implements it effectively.

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